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THE RED BOOK OF MENTEITH:

IN TWO VOLUMES QUARTO, WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. IMPRESSION: ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY COPIES.

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PRESENTED

TO

BY

CHARLES STIRLING HOME DRUMMOND MORAY

OF BLAIR-DRUMMOND AND ABERCAIRNY.

THIS WORK HAS BEEN COMPLETED IN FULFILMENT OF THE WISHES OF HIS LATE BROTHER, GEORGE STIRLING HOME DRUMMOND OF BLAIR-DRUMMOND.

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The Two Volumes cure forwarded to you

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WILLIAM FRASER, 32 Castle Street^ Edinburgh.

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Contents of (Hoiume -first.

Page

TITLE-PAGE Doorway of Priory of Inchmahome.

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS, .... i-iv

SUMMARY OF THE INTRODUCTION AND MEMOIRS IN

THE RED BOOK OF MENTEITH, .... v-xvi

INTRODUCTION TO THE RED BOOK OF MENTEITH, xvii-lxxxii

THE EARLS AND HEIRESSES OF MENTEITH :—

THE MENTEITH EARLS OF MENTEITH, . . 1-288

THE EIGHT GRAHAM EARLS OF MENTEITH, . 289-432

SIR JOHN MENTEITH AND HIS RELATIONS WITH SIR

433-456

457-459 460-463 464-466 467-470

WILLIAM WALLACE,

PEDIGREE of the Menteith Earls of Menteith, . ,, Menteiths of Rusky, Kerse, etc.,

Graham Earls of Menteith,

,, Drummonds of Blair-Drummond,

CASTLES AND RESIDENCES OF THE EARLS OF MENTEITH:—

Doune Castle, ....... 471-496

The Castle of Talla, ...... 497-505

Duke Murdach's Island and Tower, .... 505-506

THE PRIORY OF INCHMAHOME, .... 507-552

vol. I. 1

CONTENTS OF VOLUME FIRST.

ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME FLRST.

I.— PORTRAITS.

Page

The Drummonds of Blair-Drummond, etc. : . betiveen 470 and 471

Sir Patrick Drummond, brother of Henry, first of Gairdrum, Lord Conservator of the Scots' privileges at Campvere, 1650. He was knighted before 1640. He was the second son of Andrew, second son of George Drummond, first of Blair in the Stormont. This picture marked, 'Nolens Parui, 1634.'

Anna Murray, Lady Halket, daughter of Robert Murray, Provost of Eton and Preceptor to King Charles the First, and Jean Drummond, daughter of George, second of Blair in the Stormont.

George Drummond, fifth of Blair in the Stormont, and first of Blair-Drummond in Menteith. From painting by Sir John Medina.

James Drummond, second of Blair-Drummond.

Jean Carre, his wife.

George Drummond, third of Blair-Drummond.

Lady Jane Grey, his first wife. From painting believed to be by J. Davison.

Frances Moray of Abercairny, his second wife, afterwards Lady Erskine of Tony.

Agatha Drummond, heiress of Blair-Drummond.

Henry Home, Lord Kames. From a painting by P. W. P. Martin.

George Home-Drummond, sixth of Blair-Drummond. From painting by H. P. Danloux, 1798.

Janet Jardine, his wife, daughter of the Rev. John Jardine, D.D., Dean of the Chapel Royal. She died at Leamington, War- wickshire, 30th January 1840. From painting by H. P. Danloux, 1798.

CONTENTS OF VOLUME FIRST.

Illustrations in Volume First Portraits continued.

Henry Home-Drummond, seventh of Blair-Drummond, in the robes of a B.C.L. of Oxford. From painting by Sir Henry Raeburn, 1816.

Christian Moray of Abercairny, his wife, born 24th November 1779, died 1864. From a painting by Sir Henry Raeburn, 1816.

George Stirling Home-Drummond, eighth of Blair-Drummond.

Mary Hay, his first wife. From a miniature by Signor Pietracola of Naples in 1843.

Kalitza-Janet-Erskine-Christian Hay, his second wife. From painting, in 1872, by the Hon. Henry R. Graves, third son of Thomas North, second Baron Graves.

Charles Stirling Home-Drummond-Moray, ninth of Blair- Drummond. From painting by J. M. Barclay, R.S.A., 1857.

Lady Anne Georgina Douglas, his wife, and William Augustus Home-Drummond-Moray, their second son. From painting by R. Buckner, 1857.

Henry Edward Stirling Home-Drummond-Moray, younger of Blair-Drummond.

Lady Georgina Emily Lucy Seymour, his wife.

Anne Home-Drummond, Dowager-Duchess of Athole. From an engraving of the original portrait by Sir Francis Grant.

William Graham, seventh Earl of Menteith. From an engraving of the original portrait by Jameson, at Taymouth Castle, .....

Henry Erskine, Fiar of Cardross, last Prior of Inchmahome. From an engraving of the original portrait by Jameson, in the Earl of Buchan's Collection, ...... 548 and 549

Page between 330 and 331

CONTENTS OF VOLUME FIRST.

Illustrations in Volume First continued.

II.— CASTLES, LETTERS, etc. Doorway of Priory of Inchmahome Title-page. Blair-Drummond, ......

Effigy of Sir John Drummond, in the Priory of Inchmahome, Letter by Bishop William Fraser about the death of the

Maid of Norway, .....

Monument to Walter Stewart, Earl of Menteith, and his

Countess Mary, in the Priory of Inchmahome, Official Seal of Robert, first Duke of Albany, Doune Castle in Menteith, .... Castle of Ilantullo, in the Lake of Menteith, Priory of Inchmahome, in Lake of Menteith -South Side, Priory of Inchmahome North Side,

Page between xxiv and xxv xl and xli

7 2 and 7 3

74 and 75 238 and 239 472 and 473 498 and 499 506 and 507 508 and 509

III.— ARMORIAL SEALS, etc Woodcuts of-

Sir Edmund Hastings, Lord of Inchmahome,

Alexander Comyn, Lord of Buchan,

Sir John Comyn, son of the Earl of Buchan [circa 1280],

Sir John Comyn, circa 1285,

Walter Stewart, fifth Earl of Menteith, 1292,

Alexander, sixth Earl of Menteith, .

Robert, Duke of Albany,

William Graham, seventh Earl of Menteith,

Signature of same Earl,

Sir John Menteith, ....

xliv, xlvi 35 5i 5i 76 89 238 394 394 433

S U M M A R Y

01

THE RED BOOK OE MHNTEITH.

INTRODUCTION.

I. The ancient Earldom of Menteith.

The District of Menteith : extent of the ancient and later Earldoms, . Sketch of the history of the successive Earls of Menteith,

The Muniments of the later Earldom of Menteith, .... Biographical Sketch of the late Mr. George Home-Drummond of Blair-Drummond, Biographical Sketch of his father, the late Mr. Henry Home-Drummond, Original Charters of the Earldom and of the Priory of Tnchmahome, . Correspondence by Sir Thomas Hope, naming his successor as Lord Advocate, John Grahame of Claverhouse : his letters and scholarship,

PAGE

xvii

xix

xxii

xxiv

xxvi

xxxii

xxxv

xxxvii

II. Early connection of the Drummonds with Menteith, and the Armorial Bearings of the Earls of Menteith and the Drummonds.

Charters by the Earls of Menteith to the Drummonds,

The Drummonds and the Priory of Inchmahome : their first burial-place,

The seal of Sir Edmund Hastings in 1301, and its relation to the Drummond arms,

Origin of the three bars wavy as the armorial bearings of the Earls of Menteith,

The assumption of the same arms by the Drummonds,

III. The origin of the Drummonds and their Royal Alliances.

Lord Strathallan's history of the Drummonds, ....

Alleged descent of the family from the Hungarian Prince Maurice,

Other histories of the family, by Mr. Malcolm and Mr. Henry Drummond,

More reliable explanation of the origin of the family of Drummond, .

Origin of the name : examination of the evidence of ancient charters, .

Connection between the family of Drummond and the lands of that name in the Lennox,

King James the Fourth and Margaret Drummond : tragic death of her and two sisters,

Erection of the barony of Drummond by King James the Fifth in 1542,

VOL. I. 2

xl

xli

xliii

xlviii

li

Hi

liii lv

lvi lviii

lix ' lxi lxiv

SUMMARY OF THE MEMOIRS IN

Alienation of barony from the Drummonds to Menteith and Montrose, Services of John, first Lord Drummond : erection of Drummond Castle, 1491, Royal alliances and distinguished members of the House of Drummond, Royal visitors to Menteith : King Robert Bruce ; Queen Mary ; Queen Victoria, Rob Roy Macgregor : his feud with and declaration against the Duke of Montrose, Ancient symbol of holding of the barony of Leny, a small silver sword, Sir John Menteith : Doune Castle : Lordship of Cardross and the Erskines, . Inchmahome, Dryburgh, and Cambuskenneth : " Leabhar dearg " of Menteith, The Exchequer Rolls : Robert Stewart created Earl of Fife and Menteith, Further evidence as to the Peerages of Fife and Menteith, and female descent, Sir John Menteith, Lady Elene of Mar, and Joanna, Countess of Strathern, . Sir John Moray of Bothwell, first husband of Margaret, Countess of Menteith, Princess Jean Stewart and her two husbands, Sir John Keith and Sir John Lyon, Historical documents printed in preface to recent volume of the Exchequer Rolls,

PAGE

lxvi

lxix

lxx

lxxi

lxxii

Ixxiv

lxxv

lxxvi

lxxvii

lxxviii

lxxix

lxxx

Ixxxi

lxxxii

THE EARLS AND HEIRESSES OF MENTEITH.

1. THE MENTEITH EARLS OF MENTEITH.

Menteith an earldom in the twelfth century, .... References to probable Earls of Menteith before King David the First,

I. GILCHRIST, first Earl of Menteith.

Is a witness to various charters of King Malcolm the Fourth and William the Lion, Had jurisdiction over Kintyre and Cowal in Argyll, ....

II.— MURETHACH or MURDACH, second Earl of Menteith.

Witness to a convention in 1201 between the Prior of St. Andrews and the Culdees, .

III. MAURICE Senior and MAURICE Junior, Earls of Menteith.

Dispute as to succession to the earldom : amicable arrangement between them, . 7

Maurice junior receives the earldom, 1213 : lands given to Maurice senior, . . 8

Is one of the seven Earls of Scotland at the enthronement of King Alexander II., 1214, 9

His death, circa 1230 : his two daughters, Isabella and Mary, . . . .10

THE RED BOOK OF MENTEITH.

IV.— ISABELLA, Countess of Menteith, and WALTER COMYN, Earl of Menteith, her first Husband. 1231-1258.

The family of the Comyns : their rise and influence in Scotland, Birth and first notices of Walter Comyn : his frequent attendance at Court, Was Lord Clerk Register, 1225 : acquisition of the lordship of Badenoeh, 1228, His marriage to Lady Isabella Menteith, and becoming Earl of Menteith, 1231, Head of the "Patriotic" party in Scotland : proceedings against the Bissets, 1241, Castles of Hermitage and Dalswinton built by Walter Comyn, . His conduct at the coronation of King Alexander the Third in 1249, . Attendance at the King's marriage at York in 1251 : becomes head of the Regency, AlanDurward secures the person of the young King : triumph of the English party, 1255, Excommunication of the English Regents : the Patriotic party regain power, 1257, Treaty with Llewellyn, Prince of Wales : Cessation of civil discords in Scotland, The Earl's death, November 1258, ......

Foundation by this Earl of the Priory of Inchmahome, 123S : his children,

PAGE 11

12

14 16 18 20 23 25 27 29 31 32 33

ISABELLA, Countess of Menteith, and SIR JOHN RUSSELL, Knight, her second Husband. 1258-circa 1273.

Dissatisfaction of Scottish nobles with her second marriage : her imprisonment, . 36

Her efforts to regain the earldom : Papal bull narrating proceedings, 1264, . . 38

Death of the Countess, circa 1273 : Sir John R,ussell : inquiry as to his family, . 44

V.— LADY ISABELLA COMYN and WILLIAM COMYN, Lord of Kirkintilloch, her first Husband. 1273-1291.

Lady Isabella, the daughter of Walter Comyn, marries her cousin, . . .46

Claims the earldom of Menteith, 1273: the earldom divided, 1285, . . .47

Death of her first husband, 1291 : Lady Isabella not the daughter of Sir John Russell, 49

LADY ISABELLA COMYN and SIR EDMUND HASTINGS, Lord of Inchmahome, her second Husband. 1292-1314.

Lady Isabella bestowed in marriage on Sir Edmund Hastings, circa 1293, . . 52

Descent of the Hastings family, and their possessions in Scotland, . . .54

Sir Edmund's armorial seal in 1301 that of the earldom of Menteith, . . .57

Sir Edmund Hastings keeper of Berwick-on-Tweed,

Barbarous imprisonment of Isabella, Countess of Buchan, in Berwick Castle,

PAGE

58 58

VI.— MARY, Countess of Menteith, and WALTER STEWART, fifth Earl of Menteith, her Husband. 1258-1295.

Parentage of Countess Mary and of Walter Stewart : they obtain the earldom, 1258, He sides with the English party : Edinburgh Castle taken by stratagem, 1255, Grants to Paisley Abbey, the previous burial-place of the Stewarts, The battle of Largs and subjugation of the Western Isles, 1263, Sheriff of County of Ayr : preparations for Norwegian invasion, Sheriff of Dumbarton, 1271: inquest on female succession,

Negotiates for the marriage of the Princess Margaret to Eric, King of Norway, 1281, Death of King Alexander the Third, 1284 : accession of the " Maid of Norway," The Earl of Menteith a party to the treaty with England for her marriage, 1289, Death of the Maid of Norway, 1 290, and competition for the Crown, . Deaths of the Countess Mary (before 1286) and of Walter Stewart, circa 1295, Their monument in the Priory of Inchmahome : their children,

60 61 62 64 66 67 68 69 70 72 74 75

VII.— ALEXANDER, sixth Earl of Menteith, and LADY MATILDA his Wife. Circa 1 29 5 -circa 1304.

The sons of Walter Stewart, Earl of Menteith, adopt name of Menteith, Alexander joins Bruce's party : swears fealty to King Edward the First, 1291, Present at the siege of Berwick and battle of Dunbar : is taken prisoner, Short imprisonment in the Tower of London : not put to death but liberated, Swears fealty to Edward at Berwick-on-Tweed, 1296 : terms of oath, . Appointed guardian of the estates of Alexander of Argyll and his son John, 1296, Summoned to assist Brian Fitz-Alan, Governor of Scotland, against Wallace, 1297, His death, circa 1304 : burial-place in Abbey of Cambuskenneth : his children,

77 78 79 SI S4 S6 S7 88

VIII. ALAN, seventh Earl of Menteith. Circa 1304-1306.

Birth : becomes surety for his father : goes to Flanders, 1296, . . . .90

Succeeds to the earldom, circa 1304 : joins Bruce : taken prisoner at Methven, 1306, . 91 Captivity and death in England, circa 1306 : his daughter Mary, . . .94

THE RED BOOK OF MENTEITH.

IX. MURDACH, eighth Earl of Menteith, and ALTCE his Countess. 1318-1332.

Obtains the earldom of Menteith by arrangement during his niece's minority, The earldom in ward : Sir John Menteith appointed guardian, . Grants to Earl Murdach from King Robert the Bruce : the Soulis conspiracy, Death of Bruce and regency of Randolph, Earl of Moray : Edward BalioL Death of Earl Murdach at battle of Dupplin, 1332 : his Countess Alice,

PAGE

95 96 97 98 100

X. LADY MARY MENTEITH, Countess of Menteith, and her Husband, SIR JOHN GRAHAM, ninth Earl of Menteith. 1332-1360.

Her birth, before 1306 : claims the earldom, circa 1332,

Marries Sir John Graham, 1334 : Papal dispensation granted to them, .

The Earl of Menteith present at the battle of Durham, 1346 : his gallant conduct,

Is taken prisoner, sentenced, and put to death by King Edward the Third, 1346,

Feuds between the Menteiths and Drummonds : final arrangement of these, 1360,

The Countess grants lands in Argyll to the Campbells : her death, circa 1362, .

102 103 106 108 109 114

XI.— LADY MARGARET GRAHAM, Countess of Menteith, and her four Husbands. 1334-circa 1380.

Her birth, circa 1334 : her four marriages and five Papal dispensations, Her first husband, Sir John Moray of Both well, Panitarius of Scotland, 1348, Her second husband, Thomas, Earl of Mar, 1352 : divorced from him, . Her third husband, John Drummond of Concraig, circa 1359, Her fourth husband, Sir Robert Stewart, afterwards Earl of Menteith, 1361, Becomes Countess of Fife and Menteith: her death, circa 1380,

116 117 121 124 127 130

XII.— SIR ROBERT STEWART, tenth Earl of Menteith, afterwards Earl of Fife, Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland, etc. 1339-1420.

His parentage, birth, and marriage to the Countess of Menteith, 1339-1361, . 131-133

Becomes Lord of Menteith : charged to keep order in the earldom and his other lands, 1361, 134 Lawsuit between Douglas and Menteith about terce due to the Countess of Menteith, . 135 Created Earl of Menteith and also Earl of Fife, 1371 : agreement with Isabella of Fife, 136 Curious matrimonial contract between Philippa of Moubray and Bertold of Loen, . 138

Marriage arranged between the families of Menteith and Moubray, 1372, . . 140

Is made Keeper of Stirling Castle : provided for in succession to the Crown, 1373,

Obtains supplies from England : grants of land : accompanies the King in circuits,

Is made Lord Chamberlain of Scotland, 13S2 : Sir John Lyon : death of first wife,

Marries Lady Muriella Keith : the privilege of Clan Macduff : dispute as to lands of Log;

Visit of French army to Scotland, and joint invasion of England, 1385,

Battle of Otterburn and death of Douglas, 1388 : proceedings as to Tantallon Castle,

The Eai-1 appointed Governor of Scotland, 1388 : provision for salary of the office,

Again invades England, 1389 : truce with England and France,

Financial transactions with King Robert the Third : Parliament at Scone, 1391,

Sir Thomas Erskine's complaint : alliance between Lennox and Menteith, 1392,

Pensions received by the Earl : expenses in the Highlands and other parts, 1397,

Creation of Dukes of Rothesay and Albany, 28th April 1398, .

Duke of Rothesay appointed lieutenant of the kingdom, 1399 : charges against Albany.

Beneficial legislation, 1401 : letter by Rothesay to Henry the Fourth,

Rothesay's excesses : his imprisonment and death, 1402 : his character,

Albany and Douglas charged with his murder : their innocence and public acquittal,

Albany again chosen Governor, 1402 : preparations for war with England,

Battle of Homildon Hill, 1402 : siege of Cocklaws and relief by Albany, 1403,

See of St. Andrews : the Duke's onerous duties : difficulties with the Treasury,

Sir Murdach Stewart's captivity : correspondence thereanent, .

Capture of Prince James and death of King Robert the Third, 1406,

The Earl of Northumberland and Lord Bardolph in Scotland : their deaths in England

Death of David Fleming : wrongful accusation of Albany,

Albany is chosen Regent : Embassies to England for release of King James, 1407-1414,

Henry the Fifth's refusals to liberate King James or Sir Murdach Stewart,

Albany becomes Earl of Buchan : English jealousy of his title of Governor,

Negotiations with England, and correspondence between Henry and Albany, 1407,

Jedburgh Castle demolished : taxation therefor opposed by Albany, 1409,

Alliances of Albany and Douglas, 1409-10 : the latter freed from captivity in England.

Capture of Fast Castle by Patrick Dunbar : renewed overtures for peace,

St. Andrews University founded : the Lord of the Isles claims the earldom of Ross,

Albany at Doune Castle : marriage of John, Earl of Buchan, son of Albany,

Sir Murdach Stewart exchanged for Henry Percy : proposals to ransom King James.

Albany's popularity as Regent : a benefactor of the Church and protector of its privileges

His arbitration as to Irvine Moor : the "foul raid :" the Council of Constance,

King Richard the Second of England : the Scottish army in France,

Death of Albany, 3d September 1420 : opinions of historians as to his character,

His second Duchess : his children, ......

PAGE

141 143 145 , 147 149 152 154 156 158 160 162 163 165 169 171 176 179 180 183 185 188 189 190 92-200 198 200 201 208 211 215 217 220 222 224 226 228 230 236

THE RED BOOK OF MENTEITU.

XIII.— SIR MURDACH STEWART, second Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife, and eleventh Earl of Menteith, 1362-1425. LADY ISA- BELLA, Countess of Lennox, his Duchess, 1392-1460.

His birth, circa 1362 : is Justiciar north of the Forth, 1389 : his marriage, 1392, Terms of marriage-contract : Prince Robert Stewart, second son of the King, . Sir Murdach is taken prisoner at Homildon, 1402 : negotiations for his release, Instructions and arrangements for his liberation, 1415 : ransom of £10,000, Escape and recapture : exchanged for Sir Henry Percy,

Acts as his father's lieutenant : succeeds to his titles : is elected Governor, 1420, His other offices and pensions : agreement with Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, Archibald, Earl of Douglas, endeavours to obtain King James's release, 1421, . Charters granted by Duke Murdach : his regard to the King's interests, Arrangements for the King's liberation, 1424 : arrest of Sir Walter Stewart, . Coronation of King James the First : heavy taxation : inquiry as to crown lands, Harsh measures towards the nobility : arrest of Duke Murdach, with other noblemen, Execution of the Duke and his sons, 1425 : probable reasons for their fate, Popular feeling : Isabella, Duchess of Albany : children of Duke Murdach, Subsequent history of the dignity of Duke of Albany, ....

PAGE

239 241 244 246 233 257 259 263 264 266 269 272 274 276 281

APPENDIX TO MEMOIRS OF THE DUKES OF ALBANY.

Discovery of letters of King James the First, circa 1416, relative to his release, . 283

Correspondence with Robert, Duke of Albany, and other noblemen, . . . 2S4

Letter to the burgh of Perth : the King's impression as to his release, . . . 287

THE EIGHT GRAHAM EARLS OF MENTEITH.

I. MALISE GRAHAM, first Earl of Menteith.

1427-1490.

MARION, his Countess.

The family of Graham : distinguished descent of Malise, Earl of Strathern, Seizure of earldoms by King James First : Earl Malise deprived of Strathern, . Created Earl of Menteith, 1427 : becomes a hostage in England : released, 1453, Port of Menteith made a burgh of barony, 1466 : the battle of Sauchie, 1488, . Death of Earl Malise, circa 1490 : his Countess Marion, The children of Earl Malise : the Grahams of Boquhaple,

289 291 292 294 295 296

SUMMARY OF THE MEMOIRS IN

II. ALEXANDER GRAHAM, second Earl of Menteith, and MARGARET BUCHANAN, his Countess. 1490-1537.

PAGE

Question as to his parentage : succeeds Lis grandfather in the earldom, circa 1490, . 302

Litigatiou as to the lands of Kilbride : their recovery by Earl Alexander, . . 304

Agreement with Earl of Montrose about Kilpont : charters to his brother Henry, . 306

His death, circa 1537 : his children : the Grahams of Gartur, .... 308

III.— WILLIAM GRAHAM, third Earl of Menteith, and MARGARET MOUBRAY, his Countess. 1537-1544.

His marriage, 1521 : redemption of lands and additions to earldom, . . . 309

Present in Parliament : killed by the tutor of Appin at Tobanareal, 1543, . . 310

His children : the Grahams of Gartmore : alliance with Argyll family, . .311

IV. JOHN GRAHAM, fourth Earl of Menteith, and MARION SETON, his Countess. 1544-1564.

Retoured heir to his father in 1546 : accompanies Queen Mary to France, 1550, . 317

Joins the Lords of the Congregation, 1559 : proposal for marriage of Queen Elizabeth, 319 His death, circa 1564 : his children : the Grahams of Rednoch, . . . 320

V.— WILLIAM GRAHAM, fifth Earl of Menteith, and MARGARET DOUGLAS (of Drumlanrig), his Countess. 1564-1579.

Commissioner to receive demission of Queen Mary and inaugurate King James Sixth, . 323

Terms of his marriage-contract, 1571 : is infeft in earldom while still under age, . 324

Receives various commissions against the Highlanders, 1574 : a privy Councillor, . 326

Feud between Menteith and Lecky : his death, 1579 : his children, . . . 326

VI.— JOHN GRAHAM, sixth Earl of Menteith, and MARY CAMPBELL (of Glenorchy), his Countess. 1579-1598.

His long minority : his marriage, 1587 : lawsuit with Dowager Countess, 1587-1591, . 328 His death, 1598: his children, ........ 330

VII. WILLIAM GRAHAM, seventh Earl of Menteith, Earl of

Strathern, and first Earl of Airth. LADY AGNES GRAY, his Countess. 1598-1661.

PAGE

His birth : long minority : dispensation for his infeftment, . . . .331

His marriage, 1612 : examination of his Charter-chest : acquisition of lands, . . 332

Commissions of justiciary, 1621 : King James Sixth and the "earth dogges," . . 334

His interest in Church matters : made a Privy Councillor, 1626, . . . 336

Appointed President of Privy Council, and Justice-General of Scotland, 1628, . . 338

A member of Privy Council of England : in high confidence at Court, 1630, . . 340

Relations with Sir Thomas Hope : Claims the earldom of Strathern, 1029, . . 341

Renounces the annexed Strathern lands in favour of King Charles the First, . . 343

Receives ratification of title of Earl of Strathern with grants of money, 1631, . . 345

Acquisition of Drummond and Airth : jealousies against the Earl, . . . 348

Statements made against him to the King, 1632 : Charles demands proofs, . . 350

Opinions of the Advocates sent to his Majesty : Sir John Scot at Court, . . 352

The Earl charged with boasting "he had the reddest blood in Scotland," . . 355

Couduct of Sir Thomas Hope, King's Advocate : his advice to the Earl, . . 356

Counsel advise reduction and cancellation of the Strathern titles : their reasons, . 358

The Earl is created Earl of Airth : the patent for the new title, . . .361

Decree given by Lords of Session for Reduction of Strathern Pietour, . . . 363

Unjust character of the whole proceedings: letter by John, Earl of Traquair, . . 365

The Earl's enemies not satisfied : he is charged with treason, 1633, . . . 366

Defends himself to his Majesty : Commission appointed for his trial, . . . 368

Depositions of Sir James Skene and other informers, reported to King, . . 372

The Earl denies the accusations against him : submits to the King, 1633, . . 374

He demits his offices, and is confined within the bounds of his own earldom, . . 377

Beset by creditors, becomes insolvent : "not a penny" from the Exchequer, . . 379

Takes active part against the Macgregors : captures brother of Gilderoy, 1636, . 382

Is again received into the royal favour : opposes the Covenant, . . . 383

Assassination of his son Lord Kilpont : the King's debt to the Earl, . . . 385

Passing of his estate to creditors : dispersion of lands of Kilbride, Airth, etc., . . 387

Losses during civil war : burning of Aberfoyle by General Monck, 1654, . . 3S8

His death, 1661 : his Countess and her management : his children, . . . 390

JOHN GRAHAM, Lord Kilpont, eldest son of William, seventh Earl of Menteith. LADY MARY KEITH, Lady Kilpont. 1613-1644.

His birth, circa 1613 : his marriage, 1632 : assists his father as Justiciar of Menteith, . 395 In command of the troops in Glenalmond to repel Montrose and the Irish, . . 396

VOL. I. 3

SUMMARY OF THE MEMOIRS IN

PAGE

Joins the Marquis of Montrose, 1644, and is killed in his camp at Kirk of Collace, . 397

Conflicting accounts of his assassination : Wishart : the Ardvoirlich tradition, . 398

His murderer, James Stewart of Ardvoirlich, pardoned by Committee of Estates, 1645, 401

Feud between the Grahams and the Stewarts, on account of death of Lord Kilpont, . 403

Early history of the assassin : petition against him by Lord Kilpont's son, 1660, . 404

Effect of Lord Kilpont's death on his wife : their children, .... 406

VIII.— WILLIAM GRAHAM, eighth and last Earl or Menteith, and second and last Earl of Airth. ANNE HEWES and KATHERINE BRUCE of Blairhall, his first and second Countesses. 1661-1694.

His birth, circa 1634 : obligation by his grandfather, ..... 407 Assumes title of Lord Kilpont: succeeds as Earl of Airth and Menteith, 1661, . 408

State of his affairs : claims money from King Charles Second, but without success, . 409 Petitions for compensations of losses during the Commonwealth, . . .411

Marriage to his first Countess : is divorced from her, . . . .413

His second Countess : curious domestic contract : she leaves Talla and the frogs, . 414

Contrivance to get her to return : his appearances in public, . . . .416

Summoned to attend on militia : energy against conventicles, .... 418 Is thanked by the King and Privy Council for his services, .... 420 Recommends Claverhonse as a suitor for the hand of his cousin Helen Graham, . 422

Entail of the earldom, 1680 : protests against separation of Menteith dignities and estates, 423 Proposals to his uncle Sir James Graham for clearing off debts, and new entail, 16S3, . 425 Death of his second Countess : his own death, 1694 : last disposition of his affairs, . 428 Dispersion of Menteith Muniments : later history of title of Airth, . . . 430

SIR JOHN MENTEITH and his relations with Sir William Wallace.

Circa 1260-circa 1325.

Parentage of Sir John Menteith : traditions regarding his betrayal of Wallace,

Statements of historians regarding his relations to Sir William Wallace,

First authentic historical notices of Sir John Menteith : at battle of Dunbar, 1296,

Liberation from imprisonment in England, 1297 : goes to Flanders,

His return : takes part with the patriots in Scotland : Lord of Knapdale, 1301,

A negotiator for peace : defeat of Sir John Corny n's party, 1303,

Submission by Sir John Comyn to King Edward First : position of Wallace, .

Sir John Menteith appointed Governor of Dumbarton : Edward's temper "fulle grim,'

Capitulation of Stirling Castle : submission of Scottish nobles,

Stipulations as to Sir William Wallace : efforts for his capture

Sir John Menteith's share in the matter : his reward of £100, .

433 434 436

437 438 440 442 443 444 446 448

THE RED BOOK OF MENTEITH.

Is one of the representatives of Scotland in the Union Parliament, 1305, Receives from King Edward the earldom of Lennox : death of King Edward First, Coronation of King Robert Bruce : Sir John Menteith adheres to him, Signs letter to the Pope, 1320 : Treats for peace with England, 1323, His decease : his descendants : the Menteiths of Kerse, Rusky, etc., His daughter Joanna, Countess of Strathern, and her four husbands,

Pedigree of the Menteith Earls of Menteith, . .

Pedigree of the Menteiths of Rusky, Kerse, etc., . Pedigree of the Graham Earls of Menteith,

Pedigree of the Drhmmonds of Blair-Drummond, .

CASTLES AND RESIDENCES OF THE EARLS OF MENTEITH.

DOUNE CASTLE.

This Castle the principal messuage of the ancient earldom of Menteith,

Sir Walter Scott's regard for its "banner'd towers :" general description of the Castle

Traditions as to its origin : Robert, Duke of Albany, the true builder,

Favourite residence of the Dukes of Albany : a royal residence,

The dowry of successive Scottish Queens : occasional residence of Queen Margaret,

The keepers of the Castle : Sir William Edmonstone of Duntreath and his sons,

Sir James Stewart of Beath supersedes William Edmonstone of Duntreath,

Feud with the latter : Sir James Stewart killed by Edmonstones, 1544,

Sir James succeeded by his son : the latter created Lord Donne : sketch of his life,

The Castle a State prison : names of various distinguished captives,

Doune occupied by the Jacobites, 1745 : building of the Bridge of Teith,

John Home, author of " Douglas," warded in Doune : his escape by blanket ropes, 1745,

Views of the Castle, .........

THE CASTLE OF TALLA IN THE LAKE OF MENTEITH.

Various designations of this Castle : no records of its founder, .

The chief residence of the Graham Earls, and principal messuage of their earldom,

Description of the buildings and furnishings of the Castle : the Earl's wardrobe,

Other islands and buildings in the Lake of Menteith : the antlered chestnut, .

Queen Mary's garden : her visit to Menteith : sheltered in Inchmahome, 1547,

Scenery of Lake of Menteith : "gay Coldon's feathered steep :" Bandarroch, etc.,

Duke Murdaeh's Island and Tower in Loch-Ard : Isle of St. Malloch, .

Other residences of the Earls of Menteith : Kilbride Castle, Rusky Tower, etc.,

PAGB

449 450 451 453 454 456

457

460

464

467

471 472 47S 47S 480 481 482 484 486 488 492 493 496

497 498 499 500 502 504 505 506

THE PRIORY OF INCHMAHOME.

PAGE

The Priory founded by Walter Comyn in 1238 : present state of the ruins, . . 507

Burial-place of the Earls of Menteith : monuments in the choir : Queen Mary's bedroom, 508

THE PEIORS OF INCHMAHOME.

The island served by a parson, 1210 : Adam and Maurice, priors, 1296 and 1305, . 511

First visit of King Bobert the Bruce : submission of Malise, Earl of Strathern, . 513

Second aud third visits to Inchmahome : charter to monks of Arbroath, . . 515

Ghristin, third known prior, 1330-135S : grants to him by King David the Second, . 517

Prior David, circa 1490 : the lands and kirk of Leny : Prior Andrew, 1526-1530, . 520

THE COMMENDATORS OF INCHMAHOME.

Eobekt Erskine, 1531-1547.

Assists in education of George Buchanan : a Menteith and Argyll marriage, . . 522

Bobert Erskine a favourite of Queen Mary's : his death at the battle of Pinkie, . 524

John Erskine, Commendator, 1548-1555.

The " King of Kippen" and the King of Scotland : the "King of the moors," . 525

John Erskine created Earl of Mar : chosen Regent and guardian of King James Sixth, 527

David Erskine, Commendator, 1555-1608.

His parentage : Commendator of Dryburgh and Archdean of Brechin, . . . 528

Appoints John, Lord Erskine, bailie of the Priory : grants several charters, . . 529

Sits in Parliament, 1560 : commissioner to the Borders : a Privy Councillor, . . 532

Question as to the " thirds" of Priory lands, ...... 534

Attendance onKing James the Sixth: Disputes in the Erskine family: their reconciliation, 536

Prior David a Councillor under Begent Morton, 157S : joins the Baid of Buthven, 1579, 541

He is forfeited and the Priory given to Henry Stewart of Doune, . . . 542 Home of Argaty executed for corresponding with Prior David while in exile, . .543

Forfeiture of Dryburgh Abbey : act of indemnity : David Erskine restored, . . 544

His demission and death : provision for his widow, Margaret Haldane, . . 546

Henry Erskine, Commendator, 1608-1628.

Provided to the Priory : his parents, John, Earl of Mar, and Lady Mary Stewart, . 547

Became fiar of Cardross : the Priory of Inchmahome included in the lordship of Cardross, 548

Terms of the Act of Parliament erecting the lordship, 1606, .... 550

The Abbacies of Dryburgh and Cambuskenneth also part of the lordship of Cardross, . 551

Death of Henry Erskine : peerage of Cardross now held by the Earl of Buchan, . 552

%ty men Book of 2®tnttity.

INTRODUCTION.

L— THE ANCIENT EARLDOM OF MENTEITH.

THE " varied realms of fair Menteith " are situated chiefly in the south-west of the county of Perth, and partly in the county of Stirling. The parishes of Port of Menteith, Aberfoyle, Callander and Leny, Kincardine, Kilmadock, Lecropt, Dunblane, Logie, and parts of Kippen, are included in the district known as Menteith. Sir Walter Scott, who frequently visited it, has immortalised Loch Katrine, the Trossaehs, and the lakes and mountains of Menteith in " The Lady of the Lake," while Aberfoyle, Loch Ard, and other portions forming the country of the Macgregor, are celebrated in the fascinating pages of " Eob Eoy." The great novelist's magic hand, in " A Legend of Montrose," has described other parts of the district, and related the tragic fate of the young heir of the earldom, John Graham, Lord Kilpont, killed by a comrade in the camp of his kinsman Montrose.

This attractive country, in the twelfth century, gave name to an earldom which probably was erected as early as any of the other ancient earldoms into which Scotland was then divided. The first Earls of Menteith appear to have taken their surname, as well as their title of Earl, from the district,

vol. i. a

xviii EXTENT OF THE EARLDOM.

the vale of the river Teith.1 Gilchrist is the first known Earl of Menteith. As the owner of this extensive and valuable earldom, he must have been a nobleman of great power and influence ; and, indeed, those ancient Earls of Scotland, wielding almost sovereign power over extensive territories, have been called monarchs in miniature. The charter of creation of his earldom is not known to exist, and in the absence of any other authentic evidence, it can only be conjectured that the ancient earldom included the larger portion of the district now known as Menteith. The later earldom, which was created by King James the First in the fifteenth century in favour of Malise Graham, formerly Earl of Strathern, did not include all the lands of the original earldom which had been forfeited by Murdach Duke of Albany as Earl of Menteith ; on the contrary, the charter of creation of the new territorial earldom of Menteith reserved to the king the other portions of it in these terms " Ceteras autem terras, que de dicto comitatu ante banc nostram concessionem ab antiquo fuerant et que in presenti carta nostra non continentur, per expressum nobis et successoribus nostris [imperpe]tuum tenore presencium reseruamus."2 Among the places thus reserved was the Castle of Doune, which was the principal messuage of the ancient earldom at the time of the forfeiture.

The direct male line of the original Earls of Menteith failed at an early date. Only three of them are known who inherited the earldom, Gilchrist, Murdach, and Maurice. The two daughters of Maurice the third Earl, his

1 The Highlanders called the Teith in being protected by high mountains and woods

Gaelic Taiclie, and in the patent of Strathern along its banks.

by King Charles the First to William, 2 Original Charter at Buchanan, printed in

seventh Earl of Menteith, dated 31st July Minutes of Evidence in Airth Peerage, p. 7 ;

1631, the grantee is described as "Comes also in History of the Earldoms of Strathern,

Taiehife lie Menteith." The Teith is known Menteith, and Airth, by Sir Harris Nicolas,

in the district as the " warm river," from Appendix, p. xvi.

DISPUTES ABOUT THE EARLDOM. xix

only children, were his co-heiresses, and by their marriages the territorial earldom was carried successively into the great families of Comyn and Stewart, while the respective husbands of these ladies obtained the personal dignity of Earls of Menteith, either in right of their wives or by special creation.

The Earls of Menteith, like their neighbours the Earls of Lennox and Strathern, were an unfortunate race. Almost from the first their earldom was the cause of unnatural strife and keen legal contentions. Brother disputed with brother, and sister with sister, in successive generations, regarding their rights to it. Although the " Isle of Rest " was situated in the domains of the ancient Earls of Menteith, it did not prove symbolical of quiet enjoy- ment of their possessions. The direct male line of the Menteiths, Earls of Menteith, ended, as we have said, in the third known generation. In the next generation the two daughters, and also a grand-daughter of Earl Maurice, had long-continued contentions about their rights to the earldom. One of these daughters, Lady Isabella, married Walter Comyn of Badenoch ; and on account of dark suspicions as to the manner of his death, and her second marriage to Sir John Bussell, an English knight, who was called "ignoble," she was dispossessed of the earldom. Her brother-in-law, Walter Stewart, the husband of her younger sister, Lady Mary, then obtained it, and a long litigation with him ensued, which ultimately resulted in a parti- tion of the territory. The only child of Countess Isabella was a daughter, whose rightful claim to the earldom was disputed. Walter Stewart was the first Earl of Menteith of his name. He was the father of Alexander, Earl of Menteith, who was dispossessed of the earldom by the English ; and it was for a time divided between Sir John Hastings, the competitor for the Crown of Scotland, and his brother, Sir Edmund Hastings, who married Lady Isabella Comyn. The successful termination of the War of Independence

THE GRAHAM EARLS OF MENTEITH.

at the battle of Bannockburn restored the earldom to the Stewarts, and it was reunited under the younger son of Alexander, Murdach, the eighth Earl, who enjoyed the title after the death of his brother Alan, the seventh Earl. The male line of the Stewart Earls failed in the fourth generation, when •Lady Mary, the daughter and heiress of Alan, carried the earldom by marriage to Sir John Graham, a gallant warrior, who did not long enjoy it, being cruelly put to death by the English after the battle of Durham. Their daughter and heiress, Lady Margaret Graham, married in succession four husbands, Sir John Moray Lord of Bothwell, Thomas thirteenth Earl of Mar, Sir John Drummond of Concraig, and Sir Bobert Stewart. Her fourth