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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

NUMBER VII.— JULY.

Pago

Mr. De la Beche's Collections in Foreign Geology. [No. 1.] ( continued) 1

M. Poisson, Observations relatives a un Article de Mr. Ivory, inscre dans le No. 5. du Philosophical Magazine, &c. N. S. pour Mai 1827 11

Mr. Ivory's Letter to Professor Airy, in Reply to his Remarks on some Passages in a Paper by Mr. Ivory 16

Mr. Graham's Exceptions to the Law that Salts are more solu- ble in iiot than in cold Water ; with a new Instance 20

Mr. Davies's Symmetrical Properties of Plane Triangles 26

Mr. Squire on the Semi-arcs of Vibration of a Clock with a Dead Beat Scapement and Deal Pendulum 34<

D t on Mechanical Science 38

Messrs. Steininu;er and NcEggerath's further Account of the great Mass of Native Iron of Bitburg: with Dr. Chladni's Observations ^l

Dr. Noeggerath on Meteoric Iron from Mexico. In a Letter to Dr. Chladni 46

Mr. Galbraith on the Method of the Least Squares, as em- ployed in determining the Figure of the Earth, from Experi- ments with the Pendulum, as well as by the Measurements of Arcs 48

Mr.Gray's Synopsis of the Genera of Saurian Reptiles, in which some new Genera are indicated, and the others reviewed by actual Examination 54

Mr. Faraday's Corrections in a Work entitled " Chemical Ma- nipulation" 58

New Books: Faraday's " Chemical Manipulation" 58

Proceedings of the Royal Society 66

Royal Institution of Great Britain 67

Fluor Spar and Anhydrous Sulphuric Acid Rheine, a pecu- liar Substance in Rliubarb 68

Zantiiopicrite, a new Vegetable Colouring Principle Althein, a peculiar Substance in Marshmallow 69

Meteorite which fell near Ferrara in 1824 Composition of Iron. scales 70

Quantity of Silver and Gold raised in Guanaxuato Native Iron found in Canaan (Conn. U. S.) 71

Discovery of Fossil llya?nas in Kent 73

Mr. Bevanon Register Rain-gauges 74

Mr. Squire's Comparative Observations of the Solar Eclipse of November '^9, 1 826 76

New Patents Meteorological Observations 77

Meteor-

iv CONTENTS.

Page

Meteorological Observations by Mr. Howard near London, Mr. Giddy at Penzance, Dr. Burney at Gosport, and Mr. Veall at Boston 80

NUMBER VIII.— AUGUST.

On the Royal Observatory at Palermo 81

Mr. Ivory's Letter to Mr. Airy, Lucasian Professor of the Ma- thematics in the University of Cambridge 88

Letter from Mr. Ivory to the Editors of the Philosophical Ma.

gazine and Annals of Philosophy 93

Mr. De la Beche's Collections in JForeign Geology [No. II].

(continued) 9.5

Lieut.-Col. Miller's Plan for Mooring Ships in Roadsteads . . 110 Mr. Reid on Writing-ink, and on the Effects which are pro- duced upon it by Paper and Parchment Ill

M. De Humboldt on the Volcanos of Guatemala 117

Mr. W. Phillips's Noticeof some remarkable Crystals of Quartz,

imbedded in the Limestone of the Black Rock, near Cork. . 122 Mr. Henderson's Remarks on Capt. Sabine's Pendulum Obser- vations 124?

Mr. Edmonston on the Origin of the Power of Suspending Re- spiration, possessed by Aquatic Mammalia and Birds 126

Dr. Hodgkin and Mr. Lister's Notice of some Microscopic Ob- servations of the Blood and Animal Tissues 130

Mr. J. Phillips on the Direction of the Diluvial Currents in

Yorkshire 1 38

Proceedings of the Royal Society 142

Linngean Society 146

Geological Society 147

Astronomical Society 149

Atomic vVeight of Nickel 151

New Combustible Gas Oxides of Gold 152

Oxahevri*^e, a new Mineral 153

On the Ir. n contained in the Blood 154

Composition of Native Argentiferous Gold 155

New Patents 1 .:6

Meteorological Observations 1 58

by Mr. Howard near London,

Mr. Giddy at Penzance, Dr. Burney at Gosport, and Mr. Veall at Boston 160

NUMBER IX.— SEPTEMBER. Mr. Ivory on the Figure of Equilibrium of a Homogeneous Planet in a Fluid State ; in reply to the Observations of

M. Poisson, published in this Journal for July last 161

Mr. De la Beche's Collections in Foreign Geology [No. III].

(^continued) 168

Capt. Sabine's Reply to Mr. Henderson's Remarks on his

Pendulum Observations 176

Mr.

CONTENTS. y

Page

Mr.W. S. MacLeay's Notice on the Larvae ofDiptsra 178

Dr. Walchner's Reply to Mr. W. Phillips's Remarks on the

Crystalline Form of the Hyalosiderite 179

Mr. W. Phillips on the Crystalline Forms of the Natural and

Artificial Sulphuret of Bismuth 181

Dr. Spurgin's Outlines of a Philosophical Inquiry into the Na- ture and Properties of the Blood ; being the Substance of three Lectures on that Subject delivered at the Gresham Institution during Michaelmas Term 1826 {continued).... 183 Mr. Robberds's Reply to Mr. R. C. Taylor's Remarks on his

Hypothesis on the former Level of the German Ocean .... 192 Mr.Gray's Description of a new Genus and some new Species of Saurian Reptiles; with a Revision of the Species of Cha- meleons 207

Proceedings of the Royal Society 215

Geological Society 217

Astronomical Society '_ 22

Ammonia in Native Oxide of Iron 229

Detection of Hydrocyanic Acid Transference of Heat by

Change of Capacity in Gas 230

Analysis of Spathose Iron Salt obtained from Opium Arse- nic and Cadmium Quantity of Charcoal obtained from dif- ferent Kinds of Wood 231

Water of the Dead Sea New Acid in Stavesacre 232

Dr. Hare's Method of detecting minute Quantities of Opium, in Solution Dr. Hare's Easy Mode of obtaining Meconic Acid Dr. Hare's Method of preparing denarcotized Lau- danum 233

Mr. Lonsdale on the Occurrence of Galena in the Inferior

Oolite 234

CEconomy of Teredo Navalis, &c 235

New Patents 237

Meteorological Observations 238

by Mr. Howard near London,

Mr. Giddy at Penzance, Dr. Burney at Gosport, and Mr. Veall at Boston 240

NUMBER X.— OCTOBER. Mr. Ivory on the Figure of Equilibrium of a Homogeneous Planet in a Fluid State ; in reply to the Observations of

M. Poisson {continued) 241

Dr. Spurgin's Outlines of a Philosophical Inquiry into the Na- ture and Pro|)erties of the Blood; being the Substance of three Lectures on that Subject delivered at the Gresham

In.stitution during Michaelmas Term 1826 247

Mr. De la Beche's Collections in Foreign Geology [No. IV.] 253

Mr. Moseley on Caustics 263

Mr. Robberds's Reply to Mr. R. C. Taylor's Remarks on his Hypothesis on the former Level of the German Ocean

{continued) 271

Mr.

vi CONTENTS.

Page

Mr.W. Phillips's Description of two remarkable Ores of Copper

from Cornwall ; with an Analysis of the same by Mr. Faraday 286 Mr. De la Fons's Remarks on Col. Miller's Plan for Mooring

Ships in Roadsteads 289

Mr. Bevan on the Adhesion of Screws 291

" Dr. Price and his Followers" 292

Mr. R. C. Taylor on the Natural Embankments formed against

the German Ocean on the Norfolk and Suffolk Coast, and

the Silting up of some of its /Estuaries 295

Proceedings ot the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris .... 305 Duty of Steam-Engines On the Use of Chlorine in destroying

Fire-damp 309

Mineral Waters of Bilin Analysis of Allophane 310

Indigo Copper-Ore Specific Heat of Gases Composition of

Apatite Dr. Hildreth's Notice of Fossil Trees, near Galli-

polis, Ohio 311

Mr. Nash on the Fascination of Snakes 313

Fossil Remains of the Mastodon lately found in Ontario

County, New- York S'*

Sulphocyanuret of Potassium in Saliva 315

Scientific Books New Patents 316

Meteorological Observations 317

by Mr. Howard near London,

Mr. Giddy at Penzance, Dr. Burney at Gosport, and Mr.

Veall at Boston 400

NUMBER XL- NOVEMBER.

Mr. Ivory on the Figure of Equilibrium of a Homogeneous Planet in a Fluid State; in reply to the Observations of

M. Poisson 321

Mr. R. C. Taylor on the Geological Features of the Eastern Coast of England ; and concluding Remarks on Mr. Rob-

berds's Hypothesis .':27

Remarks on the Principle of Compound Interest 332

Prof Hansteen on the Polar Lights, or Aurora Borealis and

Au.«tralis 331'

Mr. Haworth's Description of New Succulent Plants 34!t

Dr. Heineken's Meteorological' Regi-ter kept at Funchal, in Madeira, in the Year 1826; with some prefatory Observa- tions on the Climate of that Island, &c 362

Mr. Gray's Descri])tion of the Skulls of two apparently unde- scribed Species of Dolphins, which are in the British Museum 375

Mr. Rumbail on the Position of the Focus in the Eye 376

Rev. Brice Bronwin on the Rectification of the Ellipse 378

New Books: Dr. Fife's " Manual of Chemistry" " Experi- ments illustrative of Chemical Science" 381

Proceedings of the Medico-botanic- 1 Society 385

Royal Academy of' Sciences of Paris. . . . 385

Labarraque's Disinfecting Soda-Liquid 387

Preparation

CONTENTS. Vll

Page

Preparation of Spongy Platina Test of Nitric Acid 388

Carboazotic Acid— Anhydrous Sulphite of Ammonia 389

Separation of Selenium faom Sulphur Stearic Acd ifromWax

Extrication of Heat by Compression of Gases 390

Metal of Alumina— New Metals in the Uralian Platina 391

New Alkali in Hemlock Heat evolved by compressing Water

lodous Acid 392

Manganesic Acid and Manganesate of Potash Indelible Writ- ing-ink 393

Dracine, a new Substance found in Dragon's-Blood Organic

Remains of the Alluvium and Diluvium in Sussex 394<

Aurora Borealis 395

New Patents 396

Meteorological Observations 397

by Mr. Howard near London,

Mr. Giddy at Penzance, Dr. Burney at Gosport, and Mr.

Veall at Boston 399

Calendar showing the times of Meeting of the Scientific Bodies

of London for 1827-8 400

NUMBER XXL— DECEMBER.

M. Rudberg on the Dispersion of Light 401

Mr. J. Taylor's Description of a Rain-gauge 406

Mr. Gray's further Remarks on the Genus Chameleon, with

the Description of an undescribed Species 408

Mr. Gray's Monograph of the Genus Teredo of Linne, with descriptive Characters of the Species in the British Museum 409 ~ Dr. Heineken's Meteorological Register kept at Funchal, in

Madeira, in the Year 1826; &c 411

Mr. Herapath on the Integration of Linear Differential Equa- tions having Constant Coefficients and last Term any Func- tion of the Indeterminate Quantity x 419

M. Varvinsky on the Action of Iodine and Fluosilicic Acid . . 426

Mr. Stokes on some new double Chromates 427

Mr. R. Phillips on Nitric Acid, and on a peculiar Sulphate of

Potash 429

Mr. A. Aikin's Notes on the Geological Structure of Cader

Idris 433

New Books: Mantell's "Illustrations of the Geology of

Sussex" 439

Proceedings of the Royal Society 449

Linn«ean Society 449

' Geological Society 450

Royal Geological Society of Cornwall . . . 457

Mr. Lewthwaite's New Form of an Experiment in Electro-mag- netism— Argillaceous Carbonate of Iron 459

Berthierite, a new Mineral Species 460

Sternbergite, a new Mineral Species 461

Jalapia 462

Glau-

VUl CONTENTS.

Page

GJaucolite, a new Mineral Species— EflFects of Oil of Croton

on the Eye Clilorocyanic Acid 463

Examination of Cinchalona Common Sugar existing in the

Form of Grains in the Flowers of Rhododendron Ponticura 464<

Meteorological Observations 465

by Mr. Howard near London,

Mr. Giddy at Penzance, Dr. Burney at Gosport, and Mr.

Veall at Boston 468

Index 469

PLATES.

I. An Engraving of Mr. Davies's Communication on the Symmetrical

Properties of Plane Triangles.

II. A Plate illustrative of Mr. R. C. Taylor's Remarks on the Natural

Embankments of the Norfolk and Suffolk Coast of the German Ocean.

III. A Plate illustrative of Professor Hansteen's Observations on the Polar Lights.

rV'. A Plate illustrative of Mr. John Taylor's Rain-gauge.

THE

PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE

AND

ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY.

[NEW SERIES.]

JULY 1827.

I. Collections in Foreign Geology. [No. I.] By H. T. De LA Beche, Esq. F.R., L., and G.S. ^r. Sj-c.

To the Editois of the Philosophical Magazine and Annals. Gentlemen,

CHOULD it suit the plan of your Journal, I propose send- ^ ing you, from time to time, such accounts or translations of the labours of continental geologists, as it is hoped may be found useful and interesting to those of our own country who may not always be within reach of libraries containing foreign scientific works. Though our own country, is, perhaps, un- equalled, (when extent of surface is considered,) for the facilities it affords the study of geology, by the variety and importance of its rocks and by its natural and artificial sections, it can- not alone enable us to take a comprehensive view of the ge- neral structure of the earth's surface ; this can only be effected by combining the labours of numerous individuals in different parts of the world. The structure of by far the greater part of our planet's surface, is, and will long continue to be, unknown ; yet much has already been done, more particularly in Europe and North America: distinguished geologists of France, Ger- many, Sweden, North America, and Italy are continually add- ing to oui' knowledge by their respective labours; and if the following conmiunications should tend to direct more general attention to these labours, their object will be fully answered.

H. T. Dr la Beche.

New Series. Y()\.2. '^0.7. July IH27. B I. On

2 MM. Cuvier a>id Brongniart on

1. On the Calcaire Grossier of Paris*.

The calcaire grossier does not always rest immediately on the (plastic) clay, being often separated from it by a bed of sand. We cannot state whether this sand belongs to the for- mation of the limestone or that of the clay. We have not, it is true, found fossil shells in it, in the few places where we have observed it, which circumstance would seem to refer it to the (plastic) clay formation ; but as the lowest calcareous bed usually contains sand, and as it is always full of shells, we do not yet know whether this sand differs from the former, or belongs to the same deposit. We may be led to suppose it different, since the sand of the clay that we have seen is in general tolerably pure, though of a red or blueish-gray colour; it is refractory (r^r«c^«/re), and often very-large-grained. This sand sometimes contains masses or beds of tolerably pure and solid sandstone.

The calcaire grossier, after quitting this sand or sandstone, is composed of alternating beds of coarse limestone more or less hard; of argillaceous marl, often in very thin beds, and of calcareous marl : it must not however be supposed that these various beds occur without order ; they are always found in the same order of superposition throughout the considerable extent of country that we have examined. Many of them are occasionally either wanting or very thin; but that bed which is inferior in one district is never superior in another.

This constancy in the superposition of even the thinnest beds, over an extent of at least twelve myriameters, is, in our

* From the Description Geologique des Environs de Paris, by Baron G. Cuvier, and M. Alex. Brongniart.

"This rock, the equivalent of our London clay, forms such an important part of the superior or tertiary rocks, that the excellent general account here given of its mode of occurrence, and of its characteristic fossils, be- comes highly valuable. We should indeed expect very considerable modifi- cations in these respects, in such a comparatively modern rock, at points distant from each other; and we do accordingly find them, more particularly in its mineral composition, as for instance, in the case of the London clay; yet keeping in mind the more essential characteristics here detailed, we are enabled to recognise strata, formed at the same geological epoch with this, amid the superior or tertiary rocks of other countries. This has al- ready been done not only in our own country, but also in Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, Hungary, Poland, &c. It is also stated to exist in the north of Africa. Humboldt {Essai sur le Gisemcnt des Roches) considers some of the rocks of Equinoctial America as equivalent to this formation. However this may be, it is certain that tertiary rocks are not wanting in the West Indian Islands ; and I have myself observed them oc- cupying a considerable extent of country, and of great thickness, in Ja- maica,"— Trans.

estimation,

Ihe Calcaire Grassier of Pans. 3

estimation, one of the most remarkable facts that our researches have brought to light.

The mode we have employed to recognize a bed already observed in one distiict, is the nature of the fossils contained in each bed : these fossils are always of the same general cha- racter in corresponding beds, and present very observable dif- ferences in species from one system of beds to another. This mode of recognition has not as yet deceived us.

It must not however be supposed that the difference be- tween one bed and another is as marked as that between the chalk and calcaire grossier. If it were so, we should have so many distinct formations; but the characteristic fossils of one bed become less numerous in the bed above it, and either dis- appear in those above the latter, or are gradually replaced by others which had not before appeared.

We now proceed to describe the principal systems of beds observable in the calcaire grossier. The first and most in- ferior beds are the best characterized ; they are very sandv, often more sandy than calcareous. When they are solid, they decompose in the air and fall into powder: the stone also which they furnish is only capable of being employed under particular circumstances.

The shelly limestone of which they are composed, and even the sand which sometimes replaces it, almost always contains green earth, either in grains or powder. This earth appears, from the experiments we have made, analogous in its compo- sition to the chlorite baldogee, or Verona-earth, and to owe its colour to iron.

The following is an analysis that M. Berthier has made of the Verona-earth and of the green grains found in the lowest beds of the calcaire crossier.

Silica . . Protoxide Alumina Lime . . Magnesia Potash . Water .

of Iron

Verona Earth.

0-68 0-17 0-01 0-00 0-07 0-00 0-06

Green grains of the limestone beneath Paris.

0-46

0-22

0-07

0-03

0-06

0-00

0-15

Green grains of the limestone in tiic environs of Paris. 0-40 0-25 0-02 0-03 0-16 0-02 0-12

, 0-99 0-99 1-00

It will be seen that this earth is in general a silicate of iron ; and it is probable, if it could be obtained more pure, that the analogy between it and the Verona-earlh would be linuid more complete.

B 2 This

4; MM. Cuvier and Brongniart on

This green, earthy, and granular silicate of iron is only found in the lower beds: it is not seen either in the upper or white chalk, in the (plastic) clay, or in the middle or upper beds of the calcaire grossier, and its presence may be regarded as a sure sign of the vicinity of the plastic clay, and conse- quently of the chalk. The prodigious quantity of fossil shells, is, however, the principal charactei-istic of this system of beds ; the greater part of these shells are more unlike existing species than those contained in the upper beds.

Nummulites are found in this system of beds. They occur either alone or mixed with madrepores and a few shells. We have found them near Villers-Cotterets, in the valley of Vau- cienne, at Chantilly, and at the descent of Morlaye. They are mixed with well-preserved shells, and with large grains of quartz which form this rock into a kind of conglomerate; as at Mont Ganelon near Compiegne, Mont Ouin near Gi- sors, &c.

Another characteristic of the shells contained in this system of beds, is, that the greater part are entire and well preserved, that they are easily separated from the rock, and that many of them have still preserved their nacre.

The other systems of beds are less distinct. The middle beds still contain an abundance of shells. We should notice a bed, sometimes soft and often possessing a green tint, whence the name banc vert given it by the workmen, and sometimes hard and of a yellowish gray colour. Brown impressions of leaves and stems of vegetables are frequently found in the lower part of this bed mixed widi Cerithia, thick Ampullaria, and other marine shells. The greater part of these vegetables, which are very delicate and varied, cannot be referred to any marine plant; the bed containing them is seen at Chatillon, St. Nom, Saillancourt, &c. that is to say, over an extent of nearly ten leagues.

The third or upper system contains fewer shells than the two preceding. In this we can often recognize, 1. Yellowish or gray beds, sometimes soft, at others very hard and con- taining Lucintv, Amjndlaricc, and Cerithia, which sometimes occur in vast (juanticies. The upper and middle of this part is often very hard, affortls an excellent building-stone, and is known by the name of ;oc7/c. 2. Near the top, a bed of little thickness, but hard, and remarkable for the prodigious quan- tity ol" small elongated and striated Corbulcc, found in the hori- zontal fissures. These Corbulas occur in an horizontal posi- lioti, pressed closely against each other. They are generally white.

Above the last beds of the calcaire grossier, the hard cal- careous

the Calcaire Grassier of Paris. 5

careous marls appear. These divide into fragments, the faces of which are commonly covered by a yellow bloom and black dendrites. They are divided by soft calcareous mai*ls, by argillaceous marls, and by calcareous sand containing chert. "We refer the bed in the Neuilly quarries to this system, in which are found quartz crystals, rhomboidal crystals of car- bonate of lime, and small cubical crystals of fluor spar.

This fourth and last system contains very few shells : in fact the upper beds do not usually contain any.

Each of these systems may be characterized by the fossils contained in the follow^ing list :

First System.

Lower Beds.

^.-r T. 1 . r These are always found in the lowest

Jsummulites L(cvis;ata . i ^ ^u ^ ^^ j ^

,* \ parts : they are not discovered at

scabra . . J r' "Iv, /^ ....

, . < Lrngnon ; the Ui'isfnon strata an-

numismaiis j .. i i .? ^ .1 j

. f J f ( pear to belong rather to the mid- dle than the lowest beds.

Madrepora Three species at least.

Astrcea At least three species.

7'urbinolia elliptica . . A. Br.

crispa .... Lam. Enc. pi. cdlxxxiii. fig. 4.

sulcata . . . Lam.

Reteporitcs digitata . . Lam''., Polyp, pi. Ixxii. fig. 6 8. Lunulites radiata . . . Lam^., Polyp, pi. Ixxiii. fig. 5 8.

urceolata . . Lam.

Fungia Guettardi . . . Gueltard, 3, pi. xii. fig. 1 8.

^Scarcely any other than this species Cerithium gigantcum . j of ceritJmnu is found in the true in-

' ferior beds. Lucina laviellosa. Cardium poridosum. Valuta Cithara, Crassatella lumcllosa. Turritella viultisulcaia. Ost7ca Flabellula. Cymbula.

Sfxond System.

Middle Beds.

Nearly all the Grignon fossils belong to this system. The following appear to be liic most characteristic : Orhitolites plana. Curdita avicularia. Ovidites elongata, Lam. . . . Lam"., pi. Ixxi. fig. 11, 12.

Omliics

6 MM. Cuvier and Brongniart on

Ovidites Margaritula . Lam''., pi. Ixxi. fig. 9, 10.

Alveolites Milium . . . Bosc, Bull, des Sc. No. 61. pi. v. fig. 3.

Tuiritclla imbricata.

Terehcllum convolutum .

Calyptra;a trochiformis.

Peduncidus jndvinatm.

Cithenea nitidula.

elegans.

Miliolites These are extremely abundant.

pThere may be some species ; but we I do not find C. lapidum, C. petri-

Cerithium ? \ colum, &c., or C. cinctum, C. pli-

I catum, &c. The latter belong to \^ the second marine formation. The number of the species of fossil shells found in these

two first systems amounts to nearly six hundred. They have

nearly all been collected by M. Defrance and by us, and have

been described by M. de Lamarck.

Third System. Upper Beds. The species contained in these beds are much less numerous than those found in the middle beds.

Miliolites These are here more rare.

Cardium Lima or ohliquum.

Lucina saxorum.

Ampidlaria spirata, &c.

Cerithium tuberculatum . "^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^.j^ ^^^ ^,^^ ^^j^^^. Cerilhia,

mutabile I ^ith the exception of C. simn-

i^P'^!'^, j teum. ^

petricolum . . J

Corbula anatina?

striata.

Fossil Vegetables of the Calcaire Grossier.

Endogenites echinatus . . . Ad. B. . . . Environs of Soissons.

Cidmites nodosus Ad. B. . . . Montrouge.

avibiguus .... Ad. B. . . . Grignon.

Phyllites (many species) . . . Montrouge, &c.

Flabellites Parisiensis . . Ad. B. . . . St. Nom.

Pinus Dejrancii Ad. B. . . . Bagneux.

Equisetum brachyodon . . Ad. B. . . . Montrouge.

Beds of sandstone and masses of chert, full of marine shells, are found among the strata of the second and third systems. The limestone beds are even, in some places, entirely replaced by this sandstone, which is sometimes friable and of an opaque

whitish

the Calcairc Grossier of Paris. 7

whitish gray colour ; at others shining, almost translucent, and of a more or less deep gray colour. The fossils which often occur in it, in prodigious quantities, are white, calcareous and well preserved, though thin and occasionally mixed with rolled pebbles.

This sandstone, the second above the chalk, and also the chert with marine shells, which appears occasionally to re- place it, sometimes occurs on or in the marine limestone as at Triel, at Frene, at St. Jean les Deux Jumeaux, &c. Thev sometimes seem entirely to replace the limestone, as in the environs of Pontoise, at