Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2013

http://archive.org/details/northcarolinahis1963nort

North Carolina Sfate Library Raleigh

*7&c 'Jtontfa @anoU*tct,

Issued Quarterly

Volume XL - Numbers 1-4

7(Ji#tten - SfrUety - Summer - ?4utt€*K*t

1963

The North Carolina Historical Review

Christopher Crittenden, Editor in Chief

Mrs. Memory F. Mitchell, Editor

Mrs. Elizabeth W. Wilborn, Editorial Associate

ADVISORY EDITORIAL BOARD John R. Jordan, Jr. William S. Powell

Miss Sarah M. Lemmon Miss Mattie Russell

Henry S. Stroupe

STATE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHIVES AND HISTORY

EXECUTIVE BOARD

McDaniel Lewis, Chairman

Miss Gertrude Sprague Carraway Josh L. Horne

Fletcher M. Green Edward W. Phifer

Ralph P. Hanes Daniel J. Whitener

Christopher Crittenden, Director

This review was established in January, 1924, as a medium of publication and dis- cussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other institutions by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The regular price is $3.00 per year. Members of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association, Inc., for which the annual dues are $5.00, receive this publication without further payment. Back numbers still in print are available for $.75 per number. Out-of-print numbers may be obtained on microfilm from University Microfilms, SIS North First Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Persons desiring to quote from this publication may do so without special permission from the editors providing full credit is given to The North Carolina Historical Review. The Review is published quarterly by the State Department of Archives and History, Education Building, Corner of Edenton and Salisbury Streets, Raleigh. Second class postage paid at Raleigh, North Carolina.

VOLUME XL

NUMBER 1, WINTER, 1963

THE EDUCATION OF WILLIAM A. GRAHAM I

Max R. Williams

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AND THE NEGRO

IN NORTH CAROLINA DURING RECONSTRUCTION ____ 15

John L. Bell, Jr.

THE NORTH CAROLINA LOWER HOUSE AND THE

POWER TO APPOINT PUBLIC TREASURERS, 1711-1775 ____ 37

Jack P. Greene

BLEASEISM AND THE 1912 ELECTION

IN SOUTH CAROLINA __ 54

Clarence N. Stone

FIGHTING IN NORTH CAROLINA WATERS 75

Edited by Roy F. Nichols

BOOK REVIEWS 85

Patton, Messages, Addresses, and Public Papers of Luther Hartwell Hodges, Governor of North Carolina, 1954-1961, Volume II, 1957-1958, and Hodges, Businessman in the Statehouse: Six years as Governor of North Carolina, by Willard B. Gatewood, Jr. 85

Rouse, Some Interesting Colonial Churches in North Carolina,

by Thomas H. Spence, Jr. 87

Contents

Davis, The Cowpens-Guilford Courthouse Campaign,* by Don Higginbotham .... 88

POE, True Tales of the South at War: How Soldiers Fought and

Families Lived, 1861-1865, by James J. Geary 89

Durden, Reconstruction Bonds & Twentieth-Century Politics: South

Dakota v. North Carolina (190 U), by Allen J. Going 90

Schinhan, The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore,

Volume V, The Music of the Folk Songs, by Norman C. Larson 92

Hutchinson and Rachel, The Papers of James Madison, Volume II,

20 March 1780-2S February 1781, by Philip F. Detweiler 92

Wineman, The Landon Carter Papers in the University of Virginia Library:

A Sketch, by Winthrop D. Jordan 93

Duffy, The Rudolph Matas History of Medicine in Louisiana, Volume II,

by Loren MacKinney 94

Doherty, The Territory of Florida, by John J. TePaske 97

Carter, The Territorial Papers of the United States, Volume XXVI, The

Territory of Florida, 1839-18^5, by Rembert W. Patrick 98

Proctor, Dickison and His Men: Reminiscences of the War in Florida,

by Charles W. Arnade 99

Hall, Reflections of the Civil War in Southern Humor, by Arlin Turner 101

Gould, Early American Wooden Ware and Other Kitchen Utensils,

by Sue R. Todd 101

Carman and Thompson, A Guide to the Principal Sources for American Civilization, 1800-1900, in the City of New York: Manuscripts; Carman and Thompson, A Guide to the Principal Sources for American Civilization, 1800-1900, in the City of New York: Printed Materials, by H. G. Jones 103

Other Recent Publications 104

HISTORICAL NEWS 106

NUMBER 2, SPRING, 1963

WILLIAM LOUIS POTEAT AND THE

EVOLUTION CONTROVERSY 135

Suzanne Cameron Linder

THE CONFEDERATE REFUGEES IN NORTH CAROLINA ___158

Mary Elizabeth Massey

NORTH CAROLINA'S REACTION TO THE CURRENCY ACT OF 1764 183

Robert M. Weir

Contents

A NEW HISTORY BUILDING FOR NORTH CAROLINA 200

McDaniel Lewis

NORTH CAROLINA NONFICTION BOOKS, 1961-1962 206

C. Hugh Holman

THREE HUNDRED YEARS OF CAROLINA HISTORY 213

Chalmers G. Davidson

LOCALIZED HISTORY IN THE AGE OF EXPLOSIONS 221

Clifford L. Lord

NORTH CAROLINA BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1961-1962 232

William S. Powell

BOOK REVIEWS 240

Hamilton, The Papers of William Alexander Graham, Volume IV,

1851-1856, by William S. Hoffmann 240

Arnett, O. Henry from Polecat Creek, by H. G. Kincheloe 241

Roberts and Gorrell, The Face of North Carolina, by Elizabeth W. Wilborn . .242

Roberts, Ghosts of the Carolinas, by Richard Walser 243

Wellman, The County of Moore, 1847-1947: A North Carolina Region's

Second Hundred Years, by John Mitchell Justice . 244

Hayes, The Land of Wilkes, by Daniel J. Whitener . . .245

Matthews, North Carolina Votes, by Christopher Crittenden .247

Morrison, Josephus Daniels Says . . . An Editor's Political Odyssey From

Bryan to Wilson and F. D. R., 1894-1913, by James A. Tinsley 248

McAdoo, The Priceless Gift: The Love Letters of Woodrow Wilson and

Ellen Axson Wilson, by George Osborn 250

Chapman, Florida Breezes: Or, Florida New and Old, by David L. Smiley 251

Rogers, Evolution of a Federalist: William Loughton Smith of Charleston

(1758-1812), by Gilbert L. Lycan 252

Anderson, By Sea and By River: The Naval History of the Civil War,

by Alvin A. Fahrner 253

Ambrose, Halleck: Lincoln's Chief of Staff, by Eugene C. Drozdowski 255

Munden and Beers, Guide to Federal Archives Relating to the Civil War,

by A. M. Patterson 257

Noggle, Teapot Dome: Oil and Politics in the 1920's, by William H. Wroten, Jr. . . .258

Campbell, The Farm Bureau and the New Deal: A Study of the Making of

National Farm Policy, 1933-40, by Stuart Noblin 259

Other Recent Publications 261

HISTORICAL NEWS 264

Contents NUMBER 3, SUMMER/ 1963

JARED SPARKS IN NORTH CAROLINA 285

John H. Moore

ABOLITIONIST MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES IN

NORTH CAROLINA 295

Clifton H. Johnson ENTERTAINMENT IN RALEIGH IN 1890 321

Sarah McCulloh Lemmon

THE ELECTIONS OF 1872 IN NORTH CAROLINA 338

Douglass C. Dailey THE FOUNDING OF NEW BERN: A FOOTNOTE 361

Edited by Fred J. Allred and Alonzo T. Dill

BOOK REVIEWS 375

Harrington, Search for the Cittie of Ralegh: Archeological Excavations

at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site, North Carolina, by Stanley South . .375

Parker, North Carolina Charters and Constitutions, 1578-1698,

by Wesley Frank Craven 376

Brown, A History of the Education of Negroes in North Carolina,

by Richard Barry Westin 377

Tucker, Front Rank, by Charles P. Roland 378

North Carolina Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Equal Protection of the Laws in North Carolina, by Memory F. Blackwelder 379

Gwynn, Abstracts of the Records of Jones County, North Carolina,

1779-1868, by Charles R. Holloman 381

Powell, North Carolina Lives: The Tar Heel Who's Who, by Cyrus B. King . . . .382

Dabney and Dargan, William Henry Drayton and the American

Revolution, by Hugh F. Rankin 383

Waring, The Fighting Elder: Andrew Pickens (1739-1817), by Jack C. Barnes . .384

Parks, General Leonidas Polk, C.S.A.: The Fighting Bishop, by Avery Craven . .386

Brown, The South Carolina Regulators, by C. G. Gordon Moss ..-.'. 388

Davis, William Fitzhugh and His Chesapeake World, 1676-1701, by Cecil Johnson . .389

McPh^RSON, The Journal of the Earl of Egmont: Abstract of the Trustees Proceedings for Establishing the Colony of Georgia, 1732-1738, by James K. Huhta .....:......,,. .-. ,, .390

McMillan, The Alabama Confederate Reader, by Buck Yearns 391

Eaton, The Growth of Southern Civilization, 1790-1860,

by John Edmond Gonzales '. ... 392

Contents

Parks, Ante-Bellum Southern Literary Critics, by Louis J. Budd 393

Gottschalk, Generalization in the Writing of History: A Report of the Committee on Historical Analysis of the Social Science Research Council, by Thornton W. Mitchell 394

Other Recent Publications 395

HISTORICAL NEWS 398

NUMBER 4, AUTUMN, 1963

OUR LIVING AND OUR DEAD: A POST-BELLUM NORTH CAROLINA MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE AND HISTORY 423

Ray M. Atchison

ALBION W. TOURGEE: CARPETBAGGER _434

Otto H. Olsen

JOSEPH HEWES AND INDEPENDENCE: A SUGGESTION __455

Allan J. McCurry

NORTH CAROLINA AND FEDERAL AID TO

EDUCATION: PUBLIC REACTION TO THE BLAIR

BILL, 1881-1890 465

WlLLARD B. GATEWOOD, Jr.

CHAMPAGNE AT BRINDLETOWN: THE STORY OF

THE BURKE COUNTY GOLD RUSH, 1829-1833 489

Edward W. Phifer

BOOK REVIEWS 501

Walser, Poets of North Carolina, by Norma Rose 501

MacMillan, The North Carolina Portrait Index, 1700-1860,

by Catherine G. Barnhart 502

Arnett, William Swaim, Fighting Editor: The Story of O. Henry's

Grandfather, by Robert N. Elliott . 503

Hemphill, The Papers of John C. Calhoun, Volume II, 1817-1818,

by Thomas D. Clark 504

Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps: With an Annotated Check List of Printed and Manuscript Regional and Local Maps of Southeastern North America During the Colonial Period, by Roger Jones 505

Contents

Wiley, Four Years on the Firing Line, by James F. Uoster 506

McKitrick, Slavery Defended: The Views of the Old South, by Philip Davidson . .507

Rosenberger, Records of the Columbia Historical Society of Washington,

D. C, 1960-1962, by Mattie Russell 508

Braeman, The Road to Independence: A Documentary History of the Causes

of the American Revolution, 1768-1776, by Frank W. Ryan 509

Whitehill, Independent Historical Societies: An Enquiry into Their Research and Publications Functions and Their Financial Future, by Margaret L. Chapman 510

Congdon, Early American Homes for Today: A Treasury of Decorative

Details and Restoration Procedures, by John Allcott 512

Other Recent Publications 513

HISTORICAL NEWS 516

to/i

North Carolina State Library Raleigh

Ac

m

7(/i*tt&i t<?63

The North Carolina Historical Review

Christopher Crittenden, Editor in Chief Mrs. Memory F. Blackwelder, Editor Mrs. Elizabeth W. Wilborn, Editorial Associate

ADVISORY EDITORIAL BOARD

Frontis W. Johnston Miss Sarah M. Lemmon

John R. Jordan, Jr. William S. Powell

Robert H. Woody

STATE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHIVES AND HISTORY EXECUTIVE BOARD

McDaniel Lewis, Chairman

James W. Atkins Ralph P. Hanes

Miss Gertrude Sprague Carraway Josh L. Horne

Fletcher M. Green Daniel J. Whitener

Christopher Crittenden, Director

This review was established in January, 192U, as a medium of publication and dis- cussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other institutions by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The regular price is $3.00 per year. Members of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association, Inc., for which the annual dues are $5.00, receive this publication vAthout further payment. Back numbers still in print are available for $.75 per number. Out-of-print numbers may be obtained on microfilm from University Microfilms, 313 North First Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Persons desiring to quote from this publication may do so without special permission from the editors providing full credit is given to The North Carolina Historical Review. The Review is published quarterly by the State Department of Archives and History, Education Building, Corner of Edenton and Salisbury Streets, Raleigh. Second class postage paid at Raleigh, North Carolina.

COVER The map on the cover shows Plymouth and its defenses, April 17-20, 1864. It is taken from Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina in the Great War 1861-65, edited by Walter Clark, Vol. V, between pages 184 and 185. For letters telling of action during the Battle of Plymouth, see pages 75-84.

Volume XL Published in January, 196') Number 1

CONTENTS THE EDUCATION OF WILLIAM A. GRAHAM 1

Max R. Williams

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AND THE NEGRO IN NORTH CAROLINA DURING RECONSTRUCTION _____ 15

John L. Bell, Jr.

THE NORTH CAROLINA LOWER HOUSE AND THE POWER TO APPOINT PUBLIC TREASURERS, 1711-1775 37

Jack P. Greene

BLEASEISM AND THE 1912 ELECTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA 54

Clarence N. Stone

FIGHTING IN NORTH CAROLINA WATERS 75

Edited by Roy F. Nichols

BOOK REVIEWS 85

HISTORICAL NEWS 106

BOOK REVIEWS

Patton, Messages, Addresses, and Public Papers of Luther Hartwell Hodges, Governor of North Carolina, 1954-1961, Volume II, 1957-1958, and Hodges, Businessman in the Statehouse: Six Years as Governor of North Carolina, by Willard B. Gatewood, Jr 85

Rouse, Some Interesting Colonial Churches in North Carolina,

by Thomas H. Spence, Jr 87

Davis, The Cowpens-Guilford Courthouse Campaign,

by Don Higginbotham 88

Poe, True Tales of the South at War: How Soldiers Fought

and Families Lived, 1861-1865, by James J. Geary 89

Durden, Reconstruction Bonds & Twentieth-Century Politics:

South Dakota v. North Carolina (1904), by Allen J. Going 90

Schinhan, The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore Volume V, The Music of the Folk Songs, by Norman C. Larson . . 92

Hutchinson and Rachel, The Papers of James Madison, Volume II, 20 March 1780-23 February 1781, by Philip F. Detweiler 92

Wineman, The Landon Carter Papers in the University of Virginia

Library: A Sketch, by Winthrop D. Jordan 93

Duffy, The Rudolph Matas History of Medicine in Louisiana,

Volume II, by Loren MacKinney 94

Doherty, The Territory of Florida, by John J. TePaske 97

Carter, The Territorial Papers of the United States, Volume XXVI, The Territory of Florida, 1839-1845, by Rembert W. Patrick 98

Proctor, Dickison and His Men: Reminiscences of the War

in Florida, by Charles W. Arnade 99

Hall, Reflections of the Civil War in Southern Humor,

by Arlin Turner 101

Gould, Early American Wooden Ware and Other Kitchen Utensils,

by Sue R. Todd 101

Carman and Thompson, A Guide to the Principal Sources

for American Civilization, 1800-1900, in the City of New York:

Manuscripts; Carman and Thompson, A Guide to the

Principal Sources for American Civilization, 1800-1900,

in the City of New York: Printed Materials, by H. G. Jones . . . .103

Other Recent Publications 104

THE EDUCATION OF WILLIAM A. GRAHAM

By Max R. Williams*

September, 1804, was characteristic of innumerable other Septem- bers in Lincoln County, North Carolina. Days were hot and often humid, but cool nights and frequent early morning fog anticipated fall. Vesuvius Plantation, the seat of planter-iron entrepreneur Joseph Graham, hummed with activity. Well-kept slaves busily tended corn and hay for support of livestock and cotton for an expanding market. Although for the moment the production of iron at Vesuvius Furnace, a venture requiring winter's cold, was overshadowed, Joseph Graham was negotiating a consolidation of his holdings that would make him a leading iron manufacturer in the State.

Amid the cares of business responsibility Graham paused to enjoy a frequently heard sound, as the cry of his eleventh child wafted through big, comfortable "Vesuvius." On September 5, 1804, Isabella Davidson Graham bore a fine son, her seventh. As usual at such moments parental pride caused Isabella and Joseph Graham optimis- tically to envision future greatness for their temporarily helpless infant. Little did they know that their hopes would be largely realized; for this child, William Alexander Graham, was destined to become one of North Carolina's most renowned sons.

William A. Graham, whose seventy-one years spanned a period of remarkable growth and change in his State, was a noted lawyer and a devoted public servant. He served in both houses of the North Caro- lina General Assembly and was Speaker of the House of Commons twice. He was elected for two consecutive terms as Governor of North Carolina, serving from 1845 to 1849. He was a United States and a Confederate States Senator. After having distinguished himself as Sec- retary of the Navy in the Fillmore Cabinet, Graham was the Whig Par- ty's Vice-Presidential candidate in 1852. He was a long-time trustee of the University of North Carolina, his alma mater, and, after 1865, the elder statesman of State politics. He performed his duties conscienti- ously and ably in every capacity. Perhaps no North Carolinian held so

* Mr. Williams is a doctoral candidate at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

2 The North Carolina Historical Review

many offices of trust; few exerted greater influence among their con- temporaries.

To those who recognize the role in history played by exceptional men, a careful analysis of the heredity, environment, and education of the child often suggests the key to understanding the man and his career. The purpose of this article is to examine the education of Governor Graham.

A child's first school is the home; his first teachers are his parents. Since there were no public schools on which to rely in early nineteenth- century North Carolina, parents who appreciated the value of educa- tion recognized their own responsibilities. The Grahams of Lincoln County were Scotch-Irish and their Presbyterian background inspired a respect for knowledge. An education was much coveted by Presby- terians for their sons. The Reverend William Henry Foote, the first historian of Presbyterianism in North Carolina, wrote that Presbyterian mothers "would forego comforts and endure toil that their sons might be well instructed, enterprising men." * Joseph and Isabella Davidson Graham were no exception. Unfortunately, however, she died when young William was only four. The family fell directly under the tutelage of the father, Joseph Graham.

Joseph Graham was a remarkable man whose patriotism and enter- prise were well known among the people of western North Carolina. He had been trained at Charlotte's Queen's Museum and was well prepared to supervise the education of his children.2 More emphasis was placed on formal training for his sons, although the daughters were taught the rudiments of education in addition to the skills of homemaking. Three of the seven sons of Joseph Graham— James, George Franklin, and William Alexander— were graduated by the Uni- versity of North Carolina. All three received additional training. James and Will read law with Judge Thomas Ruffin of Hillsboro while George Franklin earned a medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania. The other four sons of Joseph Graham partook of whatever amount of formal education they desired. Apparently they preferred the practical experience of plantation and iron forge.3

William A. Graham received considerable attention from his father. There are several plausible explanations for this. Besides being the

1 William Henry Foote, Sketches of North Carolina Historical and Biographical, Illustrative of the Principles of a Portion of Her Early Settlers (New York: Robert Carter, 1846), 512.

2 William Alexander Graham, General Joseph Graham and His Papers on North Carolina Revolutionary History . . . (Raleigh: Privately printed [Edwards and Brough- ton], 1904), 19, hereinafter cited as Graham, General Joseph Graham.

8 Graham, General Joseph Graham, 174 ff.

i

The Education of William A. Graham 3

youngest son, he was rendered motherless at age four. Perhaps Joseph Graham felt a particularly tender affection for this son, or perhaps he perceived the lad's keen intelligence. At any rate the son profited from close association with his father. It is easy to imagine that young Will accompanied his father on the frequent tours of inspection about "Vesuvius" and on the weekly trips to court day in nearby Lincolnton. The effect of this relationship is immeasurable; however, a letter writ- ten in 1836 by William to his wife to report the death of his father is indicative. Oppressed by grief, Graham wrote:

My venerated father is no more! . . . When I look back on his multiple acts of kindness towards me, his great solicitude in my behalf, when I remember how I was literally nursed in his bosom after the premature loss of my other parent & generously supplied in every want, how care- fully he endeavoured to instruct me in the principles of virtue and piety, I feel the privation most sorely.4

Probably Joseph Graham gave the fundamentals of education to his youngest son in the home as was the custom among the Scotch- Irish Presbyterians. This instruction may have been supplemented by a local old-field or subscription school although there is no conclusive evidence.5 Most of William A. Graham's early formal education was in academies (sometimes called classical schools).

The academy was the principal source of secondary education in North Carolina during the ante-bellum period. Often the academy was nothing more than a subscription school on sounder financial foot- ing. Most academies were State chartered and were administered by boards of trustees. Before 1800 the North Carolina Legislature char- tered 41 academies; between 1800 and 1860, 287 were chartered. Aside from these organizational differences, the academy placed more em- phasis on Greek and Latin than did the subscription schools. Almost every community of any size had an academy at one time or another; yet few academies were financially successful, and their operations were often of short duration. The quality of instruction varied con- siderably from one academy to another, depending largely on the physical facilities and the qualifications and ability of the staff. Fortu- nate was the town which could boast of an academy whose master was university trained. Some academies were staffed by clergymen. Discipline was usually severe, and moral regularity and a religious demeanor were virtues inculcated by nearly all of them.6

4 William Alexander Graham to Susan Washington Graham, November 20, 1836, J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton (ed.), The Papers of William Alexander Graham (Raleigh: State Department of Archives and History, 4 volumes, 1957-1961), I, 452, hereinafter cited as Hamilton, Graham Papers.

B Hamilton, Graham Papers, I, 3.

"Guion Griffis Johnson, Ante-Bellum North Carolina: A Social History (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1937), 284-285; Charles L. Coon (ed.), North

4 The North Carolina Historical Review

Between 1816 and 1819 William A. Graham attended academies in Lincolnton and Statesville. He was twelve years old when he was sent to Lincolnton's Pleasant Retreat Academy of which his father was a trustee.7 Young Will was probably reluctant to leave the carefree life of a country boy, and there may be truth in the story that he was dragged by his heels from under a bed where he had hidden to avoid departing Vesuvius Plantation.8 Graham was a student at Pleasant Retreat before it was housed in the beautiful Georgian brick structure which may be seen in Lincolnton today. Probably he enrolled in the classes in reading, writing, spelling, and mathematics.

Attendance at the academy in Lincolnton did not represent a sharp break from Graham's early life. Home was only about ten miles distant and his father was often a visitor. In addition, his roommate was Cousin Theodore Brevard of a neighboring plantation. Removal to the Statesville Academy of the Reverend John Mushat required more courage and independence, but young Will was equal to the occasion. Self-reliance and a sense of responsibility were desirable traits dis- cerned (even in youth) by his contemporaries. A brother-in-law, the Reverend Robert Hall Morrison, said that he demonstrated from child- hood a high sense of honor and truth. No less remarkable was "his exemption from the levities and vices common to youth." 9

The Reverend Mushat had come to the Statesville Academy in 1815 and offered his students the Greek, Latin, and Hebrew languages, English grammar, geography, Euclid's elements of geometry, natural and moral philosophy, rhetoric and logic.10 Mushat was a reputable scholar and a stern taskmaster. He felt a keen accountability for his charges. In 1821 he published a set of rules which had doubtlessly been evolving for several years. Each student could select a store in the town with which to trade; but, to prevent youthful extravagance, a monthly check of accounts would be made. Gambling and imbibing in "ardent spirits" were strictly forbidden. A monthly check with the local tavern keepers and landlords was to be made to insure sobriety and proper conduct.11 Although it is not certain what portion of these rules was enforced during Graham's stay in Statesville, it is obvious that the Reverend John Mushat was not a man to tolerate frivolity and moral laxness.

Carolina Schools and Academies, 1790-1SU0: A Documentary History (Raleigh: The North Carolina Historial Commission [State Department of Archives and History], 1915), v-xlv, passim, hereinafter cited as Coon, North Carolina Schools.

7 Graham, General Joseph Graham, 164.

8 Hamilton, Graham Papers, I, 72. Hamilton, Graham Papers, I, 72.

10 Coon, North Carolina Schools, 187.

u Coon, North Carolina Schools, 187-188.

The Education of William A. Graham 5

Will Graham was a diligent student who sought knowledge with a devotion which left a minimum of time for mischievous activities. During the school term, he studied several hours a day except on the Sabbath. Theodore Brevard, who accompanied his cousin to the States- ville Academy later said that '' 'he was the only boy I ever knew who would spend his Saturdays in reviewing the studies of the week.'

Such testaments of Graham's industry in studies should not be con- strued to imply a lack of sociability. Indeed, by his middle teens Will was beginning to evince the social poise and confidence which would make him a favorite among his intimates— both male and female. Later, political foes would accuse Graham of aristocratic coldness; but in actuality they were misled by a natural reserve. Thus, while he did not engage actively in the sport of his classmates, Graham was an esteemed friend.

Recesses and holidays were spent at "Vesuvius" in the pleasant company of family. Will loved the country and must have wandered over the familiar terrain of eastern Lincoln County. Years later he wrote of the rusticity of the habitations and people of his native coun- ty. In admiration he described a life "far removed from the corrup- tions of a seaport and the luxurious effeminacy incident to more com- mercial communities." 13 By tradition, on one recess, probably in the winter of 1818-1819, William A. Graham was given charge of Spring Hill Forge. Joseph Graham was absent. Although Will could turn to brother John for advice, the responsibility for forge operations was his. According to the proud father, Will presided over one of the most profitable seasons in the history of the Spring Hill works. This was no mean accomplishment for a fourteen-year old.14

William A. Graham was maturing rapidly. All his successes were not academic; however, his aptitude as a scholar was notable. He aspired to attend the State university in Chapel Hill as had his brothers, James and George Franklin, who graduated in the classes of 1814 and 1815 respectively.15 In final preparation for the University Joseph Graham sent his youngest son to the widely respected Hills- borough Academy. The year was 1819 and Will was nearly fifteen.

The town of Hillsboro was itself an education for the young man from Lincoln County. Although he occupied a secure place in the society of his home county, Will Graham was scarcely accustomed

12 13

Hamilton, Graham Papers, I, 4.

Dialectic Society Addresses, First Series, A-K, University of North Carolina Pa- pers, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, hereinafter cited as Di Society Addresses. 14 Hamilton, Graham Papers, I, 73. * Graham, General Joseph Graham, 176, 179.

6 The North Carolina Historical Review

to the bustle of commercial, social, and political activity which char- acterized Hillsboro. Historic Hillsboro had a relatively small perma- nent population of about 800; nevertheless, it was a center of enlight- enment in upcountry North Carolina, the county seat of populous Orange County, and the home of several notable men. Among the bet- ter known were Willie P. Mangum, Thomas Ruffin, and Archibald D. Murphey. During the summer months, Hillsboro's population was swelled by scores of well-to-do-people— young and old— who came up- country to avoid the heat and tedium of tidewater plantations. These gay easterners must have appealed to young Graham because of his own background of piety and frugality. Here were people who used their wealth, if guardedly, in a manner calculated to bring pleasure.16

While William A. Graham was in Hillsboro, Dennis Heartt estab- lished in 1820 his well-known newspaper, the Hillsborough Recorder.17 Advertisements in the Recorder reveal that Hillsboro could boast several dry goods stores, a tailor, a dressmaker, a coppersmith, a candy shop, an apothecaiy, plus the inevitable saddler, blacksmith, and taverns.18 In addition, town folks could look with pride to their aca- demy which attracted students from near and far.

On November 10, 1801, the Raleigh Register announced the open- ing of the Hillsborough Academy under the direction of the Reverend Andrew Flinn. With a proper assistant Flinn would offer "the Latin, Greek, and English Languages, Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Geog- raphy, and the plainer Branches of Mathematics." This curriculum was the common fare in the academies of the time. Both male and female students were welcomed and board was said to be readily avail- able in the town. Tuition depended on the course pursued but was either $16.00 or $12.00 per year.19

The Academy prospered despite several changes in teaching per- sonnel. In 1812 the trustees proudly reported that the Hillsborough Academy had secured the services of the Reverend William Bingham, a teacher of wide repute and great skill. At the same time Elizabeth Russell was in charge of the Female Department which offered needle- work, painting, and drawing in addition to the usual courses. Accord- ing to the trustees, few places could claim such academic advantages plus "salubriety [sic] of climate and cheapness of living in a degree superior to Hillsborough.

20

10

Hugh Lefler and Paul Wager (eds.), Orange County, 1752-1952 (Chapel Hill: [The Orange Printshop], 1953), 84 and passim, hereinafter cited as Lefler and Wager, Orange County. "Lefler and Wager, Orange County, 125. 18 Hillsborough Recorder, 1820-1822, passim. 18 Coon, North Carolina Schools, 280. Coon, North Carolina Schools, 281-282.

The Education of William A. Graham 7

When William A. Graham enrolled in the Hillsboro institution, it was under the principalship of a Presbyterian clergyman, the Reverend John Witherspoon. Witherspoon was ably assisted by John Rodgers, who in 1822 succeeded his superior as principal.21 High academic standards had been maintained, and in 1818 Witherspoon had formu- lated rather severe rules which set the tone of discipline for the Academy. Will required little guidance in proper conduct; but it is interesting to note that academy scholars were forbidden to use pro- fane language or "Ardent spirits" or "to lounge about any Store or Tavern, or the public streets. . . ,"22 Attendance was required daily at morning and evening worship. Strict observance of the Sabbath was to be rendered. Public worship and prescribed recitations from the Scriptures were to absorb the Lord's Day as pupils were advised to refrain from ordinary studies and every kind of amusement.23

Apparently Will did not find this regime unreasonable. He studied at the Hillsborough Academy for about eighteen months. Examinations for the fall term of 1820 were held in January, 1821; and on the thir- teenth, after a successful recitation before Professor William Hooper of the University of North Carolina, William A. Graham was admitted to the Freshman Class in that institution.24 If this examination were typical of those ordinarily given for freshman standing, Will Graham was probably asked to demonstrate competence in Caesar, Ovid, Cicero, the Greek Testament, Horace, and Graeca Majora.25 It was with eagerness that Will Graham, a few months past his sixteenth birthday, went to Chapel Hill, seat of the University.

The distance between Hillsboro and Chapel Hill was not great. Though wonderfully endowed by nature, Chapel Hill was unde- veloped in comparison to Hillsboro. Chapel Hill had grown slowlv since lots were laid off by University trustees in 1793. As late as 1818 the town consisted of thirteen houses, two stores, a blacksmith shop, and a public house.26 It seems reasonable to assume that when Graham attended the University, although student enrollment increased be- tween 1818 and 1821, there were fewer than a score of dwelling

91 Coon, North Carolina Schools, 282-283.

25 Coon, North Carolina Schools, 283.

28 Coon, North Carolina Schools, 282-283.

34 Faculty Minutes, 1814-1821, Mss. Vol. II, The University of North Carolina Papers, University of North Carolina Library, hereinafter cited as Faculty Minutes with the appropriate years. On September 25, 1820, a "Mr. Graham" was admitted to sophomore standing. Apparently this was Thomas Graham who graduated in the class of 1823. William A. Graham must have been the "Graham" admitted to the Freshman Class after an examination on January 13, 1821, in Hillsboro.

* Survey of Faculty Minutes, 1821-1841, Mss. Vol. III.

8* Archibald Henderson, The Campus of the First State University (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1949), 56-57, hereinafter cited as Henderson, Campus of the First State University.

8 The North Carolina Historical Review

houses in Chapel Hill. Certainly local dry* goods stores lacked the variety of the larger Hillsboro mercantile houses.

Despite the rather unpromising growth which characterized the first quarter century of Chapel Hill's history, its citizens were optimistic. The considerations which caused them to stake their collective futures in the village would surely be vindicated. Chapel Hill enjoyed three notable advantages. Its location was rendered choice by the works of God and men. Aside from being a spot of striking physical beauty, Chapel Hill was located at the intersection of two great highways. Just south and slightly west of the main street ( called even then Franklin Street) an interstate highway linking Petersburg and Pitts- boro crossed an east-west artery which stretched from New Bern west- ward through Raleigh to Greensboro.27 Usually the meeting of two such highways would have signaled a commercial life for the im- mediate vicinity, but the destiny of Chapel Hill was bound to the educational institution about which it grew. The University of North Carolina (though university was probably a misnomer when Graham came to Chapel Hill in 1821 ) was the third advantage to which local people looked hopefully.

Chapel Hill, then as now, mirrored the progress of the University. Its slow growth was a testament to the early struggles of the University to overcome poverty, poorly prepared students, and the taint of Fed- eralism. At one time in 1817, early in the second administration of President Joseph Caldwell, the University found itself in the peculiar position of having no professors. Students were taught by Caldwell and a small supporting cast of tutors.28 But Caldwell was an unusually able man who soon effected a renaissance at Chapel Hill. The first five years of his second administration, which began in 1816, were years of transition. Upon the resignation of Headmaster Abner W. Clopton in 1819, the University's Grammar School was closed. Aban- donment of the Preparatory Department with its excellent reputation as a classical school signifies that the quality of North Carolina academies was on the ascendancy. It is interesting to note that the Hillsborough Academy which prepared Graham was acknowledged as an uncommonly good classical school and became the preparatory school recognized by the University.29 At about the same time the University admitted the impracticality of sponsoring a common dining

27 Henderson, Campus of the First State University, 23.

28 Kemp Plummer Battle, History of the University of North Carolina . . . (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Printing Company, 2 volumes, 1907-1912), I, 249, hereinafter cited as Battle, History of the University.

29 Battle, History of the University, I, 283.

The Education of William A. Graham 9

hall. Steward's Hall was rented to a Mrs. Burton on condition that she supply food to student applicants at a rate not to exceed $9.00 per month the first year or $10.00 per month subsequently. Probably Graham boarded for a time with Mrs. Burton, who was in business until 1825.30

Even more significant to the future of Chapel Hill and the University were steps taken by President Caldwell to enlarge the faculty and to establish a new curriculum. By 1821 the University was on the thresh- hold of an era which would bring it fame. The faculty consisted of four professors and two tutors in addition to Caldwell, who was Pro- fessor of Moral Philosophy. In keeping with a course of study which placed more emphasis on mathematics and science, Caldwell had secured the services of two young Yale graduates with particular ability. The Reverend Elisha Mitchell, who was to become a long-time member of the faculty and a noted naturalist, was Professor of Mathe- matics and Natural Philosophy. Mitchell's classmate, Denison Olmsted, was Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, a position which he held until 1825 when he became a professor at Yale.31 Both men were in- fused with the vigor inspired by keen intellect and both were dominant figures on the University of North Carolina campus when Graham was a student.

No doubt Graham was impressed by the broad scope of subjects offered by the University. The academies which he had attended placed primary emphasis on classical languages; the University as- sumed a degree of competence in Greek and Latin and gave more attention to science, mathematics, and philosophy— particularly after the sophomore year.32 Despite these variations in curriculum there was much in student life at Chapel Hill which reminded young Graham of his academy experiences. The religious influence was unmistakable. The trustees of the University of North Carolina had consciously pat- terned the institution after the Presbyterians' College of New Jersey (Princeton). The laws of the University enforced a routine of hard work, religious indoctrination, and moral correctness. A typical week- day began at dawn when the students were awakened by the campus bell. After a short period of time a second bell sounded the call to morning prayers. From morning prayers until eight o'clock, from nine until noon, and from two to five in the afternoon were the hours set

80 Henderson, Campus of the First State University, 63.

81 Faculty Minutes, 1821-1841; Battle, History of the University, I, 300; The Univer- sity of North Carolina Catalogue, 1828-1824, University of North Carolina Library, hereinafter cited as University Catalogue, 1828-1824.

82 University Catalogue, 1823-182 A.

10 The North Carolina Historical Review

aside for classes and study. Every student Vas expected to attend evening prayers at five o'clock in Person Hall. A bell which rang at eight in the evening in winter and nine in summer signified that every student should return to his room where silence and order were to prevail. Saturday mornings were spent in recitation as directed by the faculty. Saturday afternoons were usually reserved for pleasure, but attendance at Sunday sermons made the Sabbath a day of worship.33 During the frequent religious services all students were to refrain from "whispering, talking, laughing, or indecent behavior of any kind. ..."34

Student decorum was scarcely left to chance. Respect for the faculty was required by law. Fellow students, village and country folk were not to be insulted. Students were forbidden to "make horses race," or to keep fowls, or to "engage in any game of hazard," or to "have spirituous or fermented liquors" in their rooms, or to go to "a tavern, beer-house, or any such place for the purpose of entertainment or amusement" without permission.35 It seems safe to venture that these rules were rather unpopular with the student body generally. Un- doubtedly many rules were subverted with the ingenuity typical of every student generation confronted by odious regulations.

While the regimentation noted in the University routine discouraged some would-be scholars, William A. Graham applied his intellectual ability with characteristic diligence. The boy who spent his Saturday afternoons at the Statesville Academy in study had matured into a careful student. In a day when the exercise of memory was paramount, Professor Olmsted paid Graham a high compliment by saying that Will could exactly reproduce the chemistry lecture of the previous day.36 Three of Graham's University notebooks which are extant reveal skillful handwriting, good spelling, and a mature literary style. The order and care of these notebooks attest that Graham was a meticulous student; however, significantly he emerges as a young man whose mind was more retentive than original or analytical.37

University students in the 1820's were given frequent opportunities to demonstrate the results of their studiousness. In Graham's day the University was in session two terms yearly, with one ending in De- cember and the other in Tune. At the end of a session every student

88 The Laws of the University of North Carolina as Revised in 18 IS (Hillsboro: Dennis Heartt, 1822), 4, 7-8, 11, 18, hereinafter cited as University Laws.

84 University Laws, 11. 8 University Laws, 12.

36 Hamilton, Graham Papers, I, 73.

87 William Alexander Graham Papers, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina Library.

The Education of William A. Graham 11

was publicly examined by the faculty, much to the delight of trus- tees, families, and friends. The examination period, particularly in the spring, was a time of gaiety, at "the Hill" because of numerous visitors who enlivened society. It was even a pleasant interlude for scholars who were well prepared for the academic ordeal. In December, 1821, William A. Graham and his fellows in the Sophomore Class were tested on their knowledge of Greek, Latin, algebra, and geometry. Graham distinguished himself by being designated one of the best seven schol- ars.38 A precedent was set. Graham's name was among the praise- worthy scholars at every subsequent examination period until his grad- uation in 1824 when he was one of four honor students in a class of thirty-four.39

It is difficult to say which of Graham's professors exercised the deepest influence over his development. Certainly President Joseph Caldwell with his high sense of integrity, morality, and public respon- sibility was influential. The traits which he typified, however, were characteristics inculcated in Will by his father, Joseph Graham. Since Will was an apt student, it is reasonable to assume that his relations with all of